2012 Vol. 31, No. 2

Display Method:
The comparison of altimeter retrieval algorithms of the wind speed and the wave period
ZHAO Dongliang, LI Shuiqing, SONG Chaoyang
2012, (2): 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0201-4
With the launch of altimeter, much effort has been made to develop algorithms on the wind speed and the wave period. By using a large data set of collocated altimeter and buoy measurements, the typical wind speed and wave period algorithms are validated. Based on theoretical argument and the concept of wave age, a semi-empirical algorithm for the wave period is also proposed, which has the wave-period dimension, and explicitly demonstrates the relationships between the wave period and the other variables. It is found that Ku and C band data should be applied simultaneously in order to improve either wind speed or wave period algorithms. The dual-band algorithms proposed by Chen et al. (2002) for the wind speed and Quilfen et al. (2004) for the wave period perform best in terms of a root mean square error in the practical applications.
Reconstructing the upper ocean thermal profiles using one-dimensional numerical model
LIN Zhenhua, ZHAO Dongliang, SONG Jinbao
2012, (2): 9-15. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0187-y
The observation data for 5 d at a station in the South China Sea is presented. After brief analysis of the wind speed, air temperature from the ship-borne meteorological instruments and temperature and salinity profiles from the CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth recorder) data, the authors find that the CTD casts are too sparse for us to understand the diurnal evolution of the thermal structure in the upper ocean. A one-dimensional (1D) numerical code based on Mellor-Yamada turbulence closure model is used to reconstruct the upper ocean thermal structure, utilizing the atmospheric forcing data from ship-borne weather station. The simulation results show good agreement with the observational data; the significance of breaking waves is also briefly discussed. The evolution of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and the contribution from shear production and buoyancy production are discussed respectively. Finally, several possible factors which might influence the numerical results are briefly analyzed.
Marine spatio-temporal process semantics and its applications-taking the El Niño Southern Oscilation process and Chinese rainfall anomaly as an example
XUE Cunjin, DONG Qing, XIE Jiong
2012, (2): 16-24. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0188-x
Spatio-temporal semantics based on "object views" or "event views" has few abilities to represent and model the continuity and gradual oceanic phenomena or objects, which seriously limits the specific marine applications and knowledge discovery and data mining, so this paper proposes a hierarchical abstraction semantics with "marine spatio-temporal process→life span phases→evolution sequences→state units" and process objects included by level with "marine process objects→phase objects→sequence object→state objects" with the oceanic process characteristics into the marine process semantics. In addition, this paper designs the storage and representation of marine process objects using the backus normal forms (BNF) and abstract data type (ADT). Base on El Niño Southern Oscilation (ENSO) index and Chinese rain gauging station data, this paper also gives a case of study. The spatio-temporal analysis between ENSO process and Chinese rainfall anomalies shows that the marine spatio-temporal semantics not only can illustrate the spatial distribution of Chinese rainfall anomalies in different time scales at ENSO process, life span phases and state units, but also analyze the dynamic changes of Chinese rainfall anomalies in different life span phases or state units within ENSO evolution.
Upper ocean near-inertial response to 1998 Typhoon Faith in the South China Sea
SUN Lu, ZHENG Quan'an, TANG Tswen-Yung, CHUANG Wen-Ssn, LI Li, HU Jianyu, WANG Dongxiao
2012, (2): 25-32. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0189-9
During the South China Sea monsoon experiment (SCSMEX), three autonomous temperature line acquisition system (ATLAS) buoys with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were moored in the South China Sea to measure temperature, salinity and current velocity. Typhoon Faith passed through about 250 km south to one of the mooring buoys located at 12°58.50'N, 114°24.50'E from December 11 to 14, 1998. The data analysis indicates that the typhoon winds induce a great increase in the kinetic energy at near-inertial frequencies with two maxima in the mixed layer and thermocline. The near-inertial oscillations were observed at the upper 270 m in the wake of Typhoon Faith. The oscillations were originally excited in the sea surface layer and propagated downward. The amplitudes of the oscillations decrease with depth except in the thermocline. The near-inertial oscillation signals are also remarkable in temperature and salinity fields.
Comparison between MM5 simulations and satellite measurements during Typhoon Chanchu (2006) in the South China Sea
YANG Lei, WANG Dongxiao, PENG Shiqiu
2012, (2): 33-44. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0190-3
The fifth Pennsylvania State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model (MM5) is utilized to study the precipitation and wind speed during Typhoon Chanchu (2006). Five model experiments with different physical parameterizations and sea surface temperature (SST) distributions are carried out. It is found that the control experiment configured with the Blakadar boundary scheme, Resiner2 moisture, the Betts-Miller cumulus scheme and daily updated SST has the most reasonable precipitation. The MRF boundary scheme tends to simulate a dryer boundary layer and stronger vertical mixing, which can greatly reduce the intensity of tropical cyclone (TC), resulting in a smaller maximum wind speed but larger range of medium wind speed (25-30 m/s). Constant SST through the TC cycle provides more energy from ocean surface, which could cause a significant increase in TC's intensity, thus resulting in the largest overestimation on rainfall and maximum wind speed. Longitudinally-uniform SST distribution before the rapid intensification could reduce TC's intensity and heat fluxes, which can partially compensate for the overestimation of precipitation in the control experiment.
The proportions and variations of the light absorption coefficients of major ocean color components in the East China Sea
LEI Hui, PAN Delu, BAI Yan, TAO Bangyi, SUN Jun, ZHANG Lin, ZHANG Xuan
2012, (2): 45-61. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0191-2
The East China Sea (ECS), one of the largest continental seas, has dynamic hydrology and complex optical characteristics that make ocean color remote-sensing retrieval difficult. The distributions and proportions of the light absorption coefficients of major ocean color components based on two large-scale investigations in the ECS are presented, showing these features in typical summer and winter seasons. The absorption coefficient aCDOM, aNAP and aphy of colored dissolved organic matter, non-algal particle, and pigment of phytoplankton show a decreasing trend from the coast to the outer shelf. According to the aCDOM distribution at 440 nm, the Changjiang River plume shows an abnormal southeastward transport. An extremely high aNAP value patch at 440 nm is present in the middle coast. The chlorophyll-a-specific phytoplankton pigment absorption (aphy*) is much higher in winter than in summer, which may cause serious underestimated results when applying the averaged aphy* into remote-sensing algorithms for chlorophyll concentration retrieval. The importance of phytoplankton size was evident in outer shelf waters. The absorption of aCDOM(440) is a dominant component accounting for over half of the total seawater absorption in summer. The aNAP(440) accounts for 64% of the absorption of the ECS coastal area in winter.
Rare earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal deposits from Southwest Indian Ridge
CAO Zhimin, CAO Hong, TAO Chunhui, LI Jun, YU Zenghui, SHU Liping
2012, (2): 62-69. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0192-1
The REE compositions of hydrothermal deposits and basalt samples from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were determined with ICP-MS. The results show that there are significant differences between different types of samples although all samples show relative LREE enrichment. The contents of REE in hydrothermal sulfides and alterated rocks samples are lower (from 7.036×10-6 to 23.660×10-6), while those in the white chimney deposits are relatively higher (ranging from 84.496×10-6 to 103.511×10-6). Both of them are lower than basalts. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns show that sulfides and alterated rocks samples are characterized by significant positive Eu anomalies. On the contrary, white chimney deposits have obvious negative Eu anomalies, which may be caused by abundant calcite existing in the white chimney samples. Both the content and distribution pattern of REE in sulfides suggest that REE most possibly is originally derived from hydrothermal fluids, but influenced by the submarine reducing ore-forming environment, seawater convection, mineral compositions as well as the constraint of mineral crystallizations.
Application of biologic silicon in modern sedimentary section to reconstruction of phytoplankton changes in the East China Sea and the Huanghai Sea during last 200 years
YANG Qian, SONG Xianli, SUN Yao, HUANG Jiansheng
2012, (2): 70-77. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0193-0
Biomarkers had been widely used to reconstruct phytoplankton productivity,and this method was applied in the East China Sea and the Huanghai Sea (Yellow Sea).In this study,Biologic Silicon (BSi) was used as productivity proxy to reconstruct productivity change of phytoplankton during last 200 years.The results show that the BSi contents of surficial sediments were in the range of 0.018%-2.516%,averaging 0.726%,and had a similar variation trend with phytoplankton biomass.The vertical distribution profiles revealed that BSi contents were relatively stable,in accordance with the variations of the contemporary phytoplankton standing crop index.According to the stability analysis of BSi in sediments,BSi was not degradaded for the past two hundred years and remained in sediments steadily.Thus,BSi in sediments had the potential to invert paleoproductivity.To conduct further survey,the linear regression equation between BSi contents and phytoplankton biomass index could be used to calculate the phytoplankton productivity by BSi,so that paleoproductivity may be reconstructed during last 200 years.
Distribution and dispersal pattern of clay minerals in surface sediments, eastern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea
LI Jun, GAO Jianhua, WANG Yaping, LI Yan, BAI Fenglong, CEES Laban
2012, (2): 78-87. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0194-z
Clay minerology of sediments are useful in determining distribution, sources and dispersal routes of fine-grained sediments. In the present paper, clay minerals of surface sediments throughout the eastern part of Beibu Gulf has been investigated to reveal sources and transport of detrital finegrained sediments. Four distinct clay mineral suites were observed from cluster analysis of clay mineral compositions of the samples. From the distribution pattern of clay minerals, we conclude that kaolinte in the eastern gulf is mainly derived from South China Landmass; Smectite could not be transported mainly by surface current from north-western Hainan Island, and maybe minor portion of it from Red River; Illite is mainly transported by the currents from South China Sea. Chlorite has two sources, namely South China Sea and South China Landmass. The Zhujiang River derived sediments could not be one of the sources for the clay mineral here, because of very different composition and ratios. The distribution pattern of clay minerals in the eastern Beibu Gulf is mainly controlled by fine-grained sediment source and local currents. The Silt/Clay, Smectite/Kaolinte, and Smetite/(Chlorite+Illite) ratios could be used as indicators of fine-grained sediment dispersal in the gulf.
Heavy metals in Changjiang estuarine and offshore sediments: responding to human activities
DONG Aiguo, ZHAI Shikui, Matthias Zabel, YU Zenghui, ZHANG Huaijing, LIU Feifei
2012, (2): 88-101. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0195-y
The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and offshore sediments were analyzed for total heavy metals concentrations and chemical fractions. Distributions of heavy metals show typical banded diffusion pattern, with high concentrations near the river mouth and following a decreasing trend in the offshore direction. According to chemical fractions, Fe/Mn oxide fraction is the major non-residual fraction in the Changjiang estuarine and offshore sediments. Higher percentage of non-residual fraction of Pb implies that, the industrial contaminations transported via the atmosphere and river input, may affect the non-residual fraction of heavy metals. Over past fifteen years, the concentration of Pb normalizing to Al presents significant increasing trend, corresponding to the effect of human activities. By comparison of heavy metals fractions in 2003 to 2006, it has been realized that increasing water and sediment may cause a higher percentage non-residual fraction of Cu in the southern part of offshore muddy sediments.
Enoplus taipingensis, a new species of marine nematode from the rocky intertidal seaweeds in the Taiping Bay, Qingdao
ZHANG Zhinan, ZHOU Hong
2012, (2): 102-108. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0196-x
One new species of free-living marine nematodes Enoplus taipingensis sp. nov. from the rocky intertidal seaweeds in the Taiping Bay, Qingdao is described and illustrated with scanning electron microscopy observation and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Enoplus taipingensis is characterized by special arrangement of lateral setae on the tail, three cervical setae, distal structure on the supplement, and much longer body length with bigger De Man ratio "a". Type specimens are deposited in the College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China.
Morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences studies of two new species, Grateloupia dalianensis H.W.Wang et D.Zhao, sp. nov. and G. yinggehaiensis H.W.Wang et R.X.Luan, sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) from China
ZHAO Dan, WANG Hongwei, SHENG Yingwen, LÜ Jianzhou, LUAN Rixiao
2012, (2): 109-120. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0197-9
A few species in the genus Grateloupia (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) have been investigated in detail with respect to morphological observations and molecular analyses. In this study, the authors document the vegetative and reproductive structures of two new species of Grateloupia, G. dalianensis H.W.Wang et D.Zhao, sp.nov. and G. yinggehaiensis H.W.Wang et R.X.Luan, sp.nov. They both have the morphological character that carpogonial ampullae and auxiliary cell ampullae are the simple Grateloupia-type. The two species can be distinguished from other species of the genus by their distinctive morphological features respectively. Based on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) gene sequences, the phylogenetic tree obtained in the study indicated that they are both embedded within the Grateloupia clade. G. dalianensis clusters a subclade with G. asiatica, and G. yinggehaiensis forms a single monophyletic subclade with G. hawaiiana.
Longitudinal patterns of spring-intermonsoon phytoplankton biomass, species compositions and size structure in the Bay of Bengal
LI Gang, KE Zhixin, LIN Qiang, NI Guangyan, SHEN Pingping, LIU Huaxue, YIN Jianqiang, LI Kaizhi, HUANG Liangmin, TAN Yehui
2012, (2): 121-128. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0198-8
Vertical distributions of phytoplankton biomass, compositions and size structure were investigated during the spring-intermonsoon (April 22 to 30) of 2010 along transact 10°N of the Bay of Bengal, northern Indian Ocean. Surface phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) was (0.065±0.009) μg/L, being greater than 80% of which was contributed by pico-phytoplankton (<3 μm). The Chl a concentration vertically increased to the maximal values at deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layer that shoaled eastwards from 75 to 40 m. The Chl a biomass at DCM layer generally varied between 0.2 and 0.4 μg/L, reaching the maximum of 0.56 μg/L with micro-phytoplankton cells (>20 μm) accounting for 58% and nano-(3-20 μm) or pico-cells for 15% and 27%, respectively. In particular, the cells concentration coupling well with phosphate level was observed at middle layer (75-100 m) of 87° to 89°E, dominated by micro-cells diatoms (e.g., Chaetoceros atlanticus v. neapolitana, Chaetoceros femur and Pseudonitzschia sp.) and cyanobacteria (i.e., Trichodesmium hildebrandtii), with the cells concentration reached as high as 4.0×104 and 4.3×104 cells/L. At the rest of the transact however, dinoflagellates (e.g., Amphisdinium carterae and Prorocentrum sp.) were the dominant species, with the cells concentration varying from 0.3×103 to 6.8×103 cells/L. Our results also indicate that the regulation of large cells (micro-, nano-) on phytoplankton biomass merely occurred at DCM layer of the Bay.
Numerical study of three-dimensional wave-induced longshore current's effects on sediment spreading of the Huanghe River mouth
LIANG Bingchen, ZHAO Hongping, LI Huajun, WU Guoxiang
2012, (2): 129-138. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0199-7
A three-dimensional wave radiation stress is introduced into the hydrodynamic sediment coupled model COHERENS-SED, which has been developed through introducing wave-enhanced bottom shear stress, wave dependent surface drag coefficient, wave-induced surface mixing, SWAN, damping function of sediment on turbulence, sediment model and depth-dependent wave radiation stress to COHERENS. The COHERENS-SED is adopted to study the effects induced by wave-induced three-dimensional longshore current on suspended sediment spreading of the Huanghe River (Yellow River) mouth. Several different cases divided by setting different wave parameters of inputting boundary waves are carried out. The modeling results agree with measurement data. In terms of simulation results, it is easy to know that three-dimensional wave radiation stress plays an obvious role when inputting boundary wave height is stronger than 3 m. Moreover, wave direction also affects the sediment spreading rules of the mouth strongly too.
Research Notes
Sensitive and rapid detection of two toxic microalgae Alexandrium by loop-mediated isothermal amplification
ZHANG Fengying, SHI Yanhong, JIANG Keji, XU Zhaoli, MA Lingbo
2012, (2): 139-146. doi: 10.1007/s13131-012-0200-5
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was designed and evaluated for rapid detection of the toxic microalgae Alexandrium catenella and A. minutum, which can produce paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Two sets of four specific primers targeting these two species were derived from the sequence of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA. The method worked well in less than an hour under isothermal conditions of 65℃. LAMP specificity was validated in closely related algae as a comparison, suggesting the strict specificity of the LAMP primers. Two visual inspection approaches were feasible to interpret the positive or negative results. The detection limits of A. catenella and A. minutum samples using the LAMP assay were found to be 5.6 and 4.5 pg DNA, respectively. The sensitivity of this LAMP assay was 10 or 100-fold higher than Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in detecting the two microalgae. These characteristics of species specificity, sensitivity, and rapidity suggest that this method has the potentiality in the monitoring of red tide caused by A. catenella and A. minutum.