2022 Vol. 41, No. 10

2022, 41(10)
Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Non-hydrostatic modelling of regular wave transformation and current circulation in an idealized reef-lagoon-channel system
Jian Shi, Wei Liu, Jinhai Zheng, Chi Zhang, Xiangming Cao
2022, 41(10): 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2001-9
The wave-induced setup and circulation in a two dimensional horizontal (2DH) reef-lagoon-channel system is investigated by a non-hydrostatic model. The simulated results agree well with observations from the laboratory experiments, revealing that the model is valid in simulating wave transformation and currents over reefs. The effects of incident wave height, period, and reef flat water depth on the mean sea level and wave-driven currents are examined. Results show that the distributions of mean sea level and current velocities on the reef flat adjacent to the channel vary significantly from those in the area close to the side walls. From the wave averaged current field, an obvious alongshore flux flowing from the reef flat to the channel is captured. The flux from the reef flat composes the second source of the offshore rip current, while the first source is from the lagoon. A detailed momentum balance analysis shows that the alongshore current is mainly induced by the pressure gradient between the reef flat and the channel. In the lagoon, the momentum balances are between the pressure and radiation stress gradient, which drives flow towards the channel. Along the channel, the offshore current is mainly driven by the pressure gradient.
Vertical multiple-layer structure of temperature and turbulent diffusivity in the South China Sea
Xin He, Changrong Liang, Yang Yang, Guiying Chen, Xiaodong Shang, Xiaozhou He, Penger Tong
2022, 41(10): 14-21. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2005-5
We report field measurements of vertical profiles of the turbulent diffusivity and temperature at different stations in the South China Sea (SCS). Our study shows that the measured turbulent diffusivity follows a power-law distribution with a varying exponent in water layers. Similar multiple-layer scaling regimes were also observed from the temperature fluctuations. Combining turbulent diffusivity and temperature fluctuations, the vertical structure of temperature was revealed. Furthermore, we discussed the temperature profiles in each layer. A constant function of a dimensionless temperature profile was found in water layers that have identical turbulence conditions. Our results reveal the multiple-layer structure of temperature in the SCS. This study contributes to the understanding of the vertical structure of multiple layers in the SCS and provides clues for exploring the physical mechanism for maintaining the temperature structure.
FIO-ESM v2.0 CORE2-forced experiment for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project
Qi Shu, Zhenya Song, Ying Bao, Xiaodan Yang, Yajuan Song, Xinfang Li, Meng Wei, Fangli Qiao
2022, 41(10): 22-31. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2000-x
We introduced the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) Ocean Model Intercomparison Project CORE2-forced (OMIP-1) experiment by using the First Institute of Oceanography Earth System Model version 2.0 (FIO-ESM v2.0), and comprehensively evaluated the simulation results. Unlike other OMIP models, FIO-ESM v2.0 includes a coupled ocean surface wave component model that takes into account non-breaking surface wave-induced vertical mixing in the ocean and effect of surface wave Stokes drift on air-sea momentum and heat fluxes in the climate system. A sub-layer sea surface temperature (SST) diurnal cycle parameterization was also employed to take into account effect of SST diurnal cycle on air-sea heat fluxes to improve simulations of air-sea interactions. Evaluations show that mean values and long-term trends of significant wave height were adequately reproduced in the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulations, and there is a reasonable fit between the SST diurnal cycle obtained from in situ observations and that parameterized by FIO-ESM v2.0. Evaluations of model drift, temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation show that the model performs well in the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulation. However, the summer sea ice extent of the Arctic and Antarctic is underestimated.
Tide-induced Lagrangian residual velocity and dynamic analysis based on field observations in the inner Xiangshan Bay, China
Xiaoxuan Sheng, Qi Quan, Jinzhen Yu, Xinyan Mao, Wensheng Jiang
2022, 41(10): 32-40. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2007-3
In the Xiangshan Bay at the east coast of China, coastal marine pollution is conspicuous and severe in recent years. As transport of the pollutants is closely related to the coastal circulation, there is a great practical significance to investigate the circulation in this area. In this work, the surface pattern and vertical profiles of Lagrangian residual velocity (LRV) were studied based on field observation data from the inner Xiangshan Bay. By tracking GPS-GPRS drifters’ trajectories, the surface LRV pattern is going out in the central deep trough and flowing inwards near the shoreside. Combined with data from two mooring stations, vertical profiles of LRV is flowing out at surface and flowing in at the bottom, consistent with the gravitational circulation induced by baroclinic effects at the estuary. However, according to the diagnostic analysis, the main mechanism driving the residual current is barotropic rather than baroclinic. The LRV equation is controlled by the tidally-averaged barotropic pressure gradient force, tidal body force and tidally-averaged turbulent stress, while the tidally-averaged baroclinic pressure gradient force is one order of magnitude less than other forces. Additionally, the tidally mean eddy viscosity coefficient which is used in the expression of tidally-averaged turbulent stress might be not adequate and requires further studies.
Modified parameterization for near-inertial waves
Weiqi Hong, Lei Zhou, Xiaohui Xie, Han Zhang, Changrong Liang
2022, 41(10): 41-53. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2012-6
The near-inertial waves (NIWs) are important for energy cascade in the ocean. They are usually significantly reinforced by strong winds, such as typhoon. Due to relatively coarse resolutions in contemporary climate models, NIWs and associated ocean mixing need to be parameterized. In this study, a parameterization for NIWs proposed by Jochum in 2013 (J13 scheme), which has been widely used, is compared with the observations in the South China Sea, and the observations are treated as model outputs. Under normal conditions, the J13 scheme performs well. However, there are noticeable discrepancies between the J13 scheme and observations during typhoon. During Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2014, the inferred value of the boundary layer is deeper in the J13 scheme due to the weak near-inertial velocity shear in the vertical. After typhoon, the spreading of NIWs beneath the upper boundary layer is much faster than the theoretical prediction of inertial gravity waves, and this fast process is not rendered well by the J13 scheme. In addition, below the boundary layer, NIWs and associated diapycnal mixing last longer than the direct impacts of typhoon on the sea surface. Since the energy dissipation and diapycnal mixing below the boundary layer are bounded to the surface winds in the J13 scheme, the prolonged influences of typhoon via NIWs in the ocean interior are missing in this scheme. Based on current examination, modifications to the J13 scheme are proposed, and the modified version can reduce the discrepancies in the temporal and vertical structures of diapycnal mixing.
Variations of suspended sediment transport caused by changes in shoreline and bathymetry in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Estuary in the wet season
Shicheng Lin, Jianwei Niu, Guangping Liu, Xing Wei, Shuqun Cai
2022, 41(10): 54-73. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2017-1
A wave-current-sediment coupled numerical model is employed to study the responses of suspended sediment transport in the wet season to changes in shoreline and bathymetry in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Estuary (ZRE) from 1971 to 2012. It is shown that, during the wavy period, the large wave-induced bottom stress enhances sediment resuspension, resulting in an increase in the area of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) greater than 100 mg/L by 183.4%. On one hand, in spring tide, the change in shoreline reduces the area of SSC greater than 100 mg/L by 17.8% in the west shoal (WS) but increases the SSC, owing to the closer sediment source to the offshore and the stronger residual current at the Hengmeng (HEM) and Hongqili (HQL) outlets. The eastward Eulerian transport is enhanced in the WS and west channel (WC), resulting in a higher SSC there. The reclamation of Longxue Island (LXI) increases SSC on its east side and east shoal (ES) but decreases the SSC on its west and south sides. Moreover, in the WC, the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) is located near the saltwater wedge and moves southward, which is caused by the southward movement of the maximum longitudinal Eulerian transport. In neap tide, the changes are similar but relatively weaker. On the other hand, in spring tide, the change in bathymetry makes the SSC in the WS increase, and the area of SSC greater than 100 mg/L increases by 11.4% and expands eastward and southward, which is caused by the increases in wave-induced bottom stress and eastward Eulerian transport. On the east side of the WC, the eastward Eulerian transport decreases significantly, resulting in a smaller SSC in the middle shoal (MS). In addition, in the WC, the maximum SSC is reduced, which is caused by the smaller wave-induced bottom stress and a significant increase of 109.88% in southward Eulerian transport. The results in neap tide are similar to those in spring tide but with smaller changes, and the sediment transports northward in the WC owing to the northward Eulerian transport and vertical shear transport. This study may provide some references for marine ecological environment security and coastal management in the ZRE and other estuaries worldwide affected by strong human interventions.
Three-dimensional characteristics of mesoscale eddies simulated by a regional model in the northwestern Pacific Ocean during 2000–2008
Guijing Yang, Xiayan Lin, Guoqing Han, Yu Liu, Gengxin Chen, Jianhui Wang
2022, 41(10): 74-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2006-4
Mesoscale eddies play vital roles in ocean processes. Although previous studies focused on eddy surface features and individual three-dimensional (3D) eddy cases in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, the analysis of unique eddy 3D regional characteristics is still lacking. A 3D eddy detection scheme is applied to 9 years (2000–2008) of eddy-resolving Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) output to obtain a 3D eddy dataset from the surface to a depth of 1 000 m in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (15°–35°N, 120°–145°E). The 3D characteristics of mesoscale eddies are analyzed in two regions, namely, Box1 (Subtropical Countercurrent, 15°–25°N, 120°–145°E) and Box2 (Southern Kuroshio Extension, 25°–35°N, 120°–145°E). In Box1, the current is characterized by strong vertical shear and weak horizontal shear. In Box2, the current is characterized by the strong Kuroshio, topographic effect, and the westward propagation of Rossby waves. The results indicate the importance of baroclinic instability in Box1, whereas in Box2, both the barotropic and baroclinic instability are important. Moreover, the mesoscale eddies’ properties in Box1 and Box2 are distinct. The eddies in Box1 have larger number and radius but a shorter lifetime. By contrast, Box2 has fewer eddies, which have smaller radius but longer lifetime. Vertically, more eddies are detected at the subsurface than at the surface in both regions; the depth of 650 m is the turning point in Box1. Above this depth, the number of cyclonic eddies (CEs) is larger than that of anticyclonic eddies (AEs). In Box2, the number of CEs is dominant vertically. Eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and mean normalized relative vorticity in Box2 are significantly higher than those in Box1. With increasing depth, the attenuation trend of EKE and relative vorticity of Box1 become greater than those of Box2. Furthermore, the upper ocean (about 300 m in depth) contains 68.6% of the eddies (instantaneous eddy). Only 16.6% of the eddies extend to 1 000 m. In addition, about 87% of the eddies are bowl-shaped eddies in the two regions. Only about 3% are cone-shaped eddies. With increasing depth of the eddies, the proportion of bowl-shaped eddies gradually decreases. Conversely, the cone- and lens-shaped eddies are equal in number at 700–1 000 m, accounting for about 30% each. Studying the 3D characteristics of eddies in two different regions of the northwestern Pacific Ocean is an important stepping stone for discussing the different eddy generation mechanisms.
On the variability of vertical eddy heat flux in the upper ocean
Tianshi Du, Peiran Yang, Zhao Jing
2022, 41(10): 94-99. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2009-1
Ocean eddies produce strong vertical heat flux (VHF) in the upper ocean, exerting profound influences on the climate and ecosystem. Currently, mooring array provides a standard way to estimate the eddy-induced VHF (EVHF) based on the adiabatic potential density equation. Apart from the validity of adiabatic assumption, it remains unclear to what extent the estimated EVHF at a single location within a limited time period is representative of its climatological mean value. In this study, we analyzed the above issue by systematically evaluating the variability of EVHF simulated by a 1-km ocean model configured over the Kuroshio Extension. It is found that the EVHF at a single location exhibits pronounced variability. Even averaged over one year that is comparable to the current maintenance capacity of mooring array, the EVHF still deviates significantly from its climatological mean value. For more than 49% of locations in our computational domain (31°–40°N, 149°–166°E), the discrepancy between the one-year mean EVHF and its climatological mean value at the peaking depth is larger than the climatological mean itself. The mesoscale eddies play a dominant role in the variability of EVHF but contribute little to the climatological mean EVHF; the opposite is true for submesoscale eddies. Our findings indicate that nested mooring array allowing for isolating the effects of submesoscale eddies will be useful to obtain climatological mean EVHF.
Comparison of coupled and uncoupled models in simulating Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillation from CMIP6
Baosheng Li, Dake Chen, Tao Lian, Jianhuang Qin
2022, 41(10): 100-108. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2011-7
The monsoon intraseasonal oscillation (MISO) is the dominant variability over the Indian Ocean during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) season and is characterized by pronounced northward propagation. Previous studies have shown that general circulation models (GCMs) still have difficulty in simulating the northward-propagating MISO, and that the role of air-sea interaction in MISO is unclear. In this study, 14 atmosphere-ocean coupled GCMs (CGCMs) and the corresponding atmosphere-only GCMs (AGCMs) are selected from Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) to assess their performance in reproducing MISO and the associated vortex tilting mechanism. The results show that both CGCMs and AGCMs are able to well simulate the significant relationship between MISO and vortex tilting. However, 80% of CGCMs show better simulation skills for MISO than AGCMs in CMIP6. In AGCMs, the poor model fidelity in MISO is due to the failure simulation of vortex tilting. Moreover, it is found that failure to simulate the downward motion to the north of convection is responsible for the poor simulation of vortex tilting in AGCMs. In addition, it is observed that there is a significant relationship between the simulated sea surface temperature gradient and simulated vertical velocity shear in the meridional direction. These findings indicate that air-sea interaction may play a vital role in simulating vertical motions in tilting and MISO processes. This work offers us a specific target to improve the MISO simulation and further studies are needed to elucidate the physical processes of this air-sea interaction coupling with vortex tilting.
Seasonal variation of atmospheric coupling with oceanic mesoscale eddies in the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent
Bowen Sun, Baofu Li, Jingyu Yan, Yuqi Zhou, Shuo Zhou
2022, 41(10): 109-118. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2022-4
This study investigated the seasonal variation in the atmospheric response to oceanic mesoscale eddies in the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) and its mechanism, based on satellite altimetric and reanalysis datasets. Although mesoscale eddy in the study area is more active in summer, the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly associated with mesoscale eddies is more intense and dipolar in winter, which is largely due to the larger background SST gradient. Similarly, the impact of the oceanic eddy on sea surface wind speed and heat flux is strongest in winter, whereas its effect on precipitation rate is more significant in summer. The study revealed that the SST gradient in STCC could impact the atmosphere layer by up to 800 hPa (900 hPa) in boreal winter (summer) through the dominant vertical mixing mechanism. Moreover, the intensity of the SST gradient causes such seasonal variation in mesoscale air-sea coupling in the study region. In brief, a stronger (weaker) background SST gradient field in wintertime (summertime) leads to a larger (smaller) eddy-induced SST anomaly, thus differently impacting atmosphere instability and transitional kinetic energy flux over oceanic eddies, leading to seasonal variation in mesoscale air-sea coupling intensity.
The atmospheric hinder for intraseasonal sea-air interaction over the Bay of Bengal during Indian summer monsoon in CMIP6
Ze Meng, Lei Zhou, Baosheng Li, Jianhuang Qin, Juncheng Xie
2022, 41(10): 119-130. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2023-3
The surroundings of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) suffer a lot from the extreme rainfall events during Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Previous studies have proved that the sea-air interaction is an important factor for the monsoonal precipitation. Using the 6th Coupled Modol Inter-comparison Project (CMIP6) models, this study examined the biases of surface heat flux, which is the main connection between atmosphere and ocean. Results show that although CMIP6 have a better simulation of intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over BoB than the previous ones, the “atmospheric blockage” still delays the response of latent heat flux to the oceanic forcing. Specifically, during the increment of positive latent heat flux in CMIP6, the negative contribution from wind effects covers most of the positive contribution from humidity effects, due to the underestimate of humidity effects. Further diagnostic analysis denote that the surface air humidity has a quarter of a phase ahead of warm SST in observation, but gets wet along with the warm SST accordingly in most CMIP6 models. As a result, the simulated transfer of intraseasonal moisture flux is hindered between ocean and atmosphere. Therefore, as a bridge between both sides, the atmospheric boundary layer is essential for a better sea-air coupled simulation, especially when the atmospheric and the oceanic variabilities involved in a climate model becomes increasingly sophisticated. The surface air humidity and boundary layer processes require more attention as well as better simulations.
Impact of Arctic Oscillation on cloud radiative forcing and September sea ice retreat
Yanxing Li, Liang Chang, Guoping Gao
2022, 41(10): 131-139. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2010-8
The Arctic Oscillation (AO) has important effects on the sea ice change in terms of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes. However, while the dynamic processes of AO have been widely explored, the thermodynamic processes of AO need to be further discussed. In this paper, we use the fifth state-of-the-art reanalysis at European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA5) from 1979 to 2020 to investigate the relationship between AO and the surface springtime longwave (LW) cloud radiative forcing (CRF), summertime shortwave (SW) CRF in the Arctic region (65°−90°N). In addition, the contribution of CRF induced by AO to the sea ice change is also discussed. Results indicate that the positive (negative) anomalies of springtime LW CRF and summertime SW CRF are generally detected over the Arctic Ocean during the enhanced positive (negative) AO phase in spring and summer, respectively. Meanwhile, while the LW (SW) CRF generally has a positive correlation with AO index (AOI) in spring (summer) over the entire Arctic Ocean, this correlation is statistically significant over 70°−85°N and 120°W−90°E (i.e., region of interest (ROI)) in both seasons. Moreover, the response of CRF to the atmospheric conditions varies in spring and summer. We also find that the positive springtime (summertime) AOI tends to decrease (increase) the sea ice in September, and this phenomenon is especially prominent over the ROI. The sensitivity study among sea ice extent, CRF and AOI further reveals that decreases (increases) in September sea ice over the ROI are partly attributed to the springtime LW (summertime SW) CRF during the positive AOI. The present study provides a new pattern of AO affecting sea ice change via cloud radiative effects, which might benefit the sea ice forecast improvement.
Characteristics of water masses and bio-optical properties of the Bering Sea shelf during 2007–2009
Yubin Yao, Tao Li, Xingyuan Zhu, Xiaoyu Wang
2022, 41(10): 140-153. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2019-z
The hydrographic and bio-optical properties of the Bering Sea shelf were analyzed based on in-situ measurements obtained during four cruises from 2007 to 2009. According to the temperature and salinity of the seawater, the spring water masses on the Bering Sea shelf were classified as the Alaskan Coast Water, Bering Sea Shelf Water, Anadyr Water, Spring Mixed Layer Water, Remnant Winter Water, and Winter Water, each of which had varying chlorophyll a concentrations. Among them, the highest chlorophyll a concentration occurred in the nutrient-rich Anadyr Water ((7.57±6.16) mg/m3 in spring). The spectrum-dependent diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd(λ)) of the water column for downwelling irradiance was also calculated, exhibiting a decrease at 412–555 nm and then an increase within the range of 0.17–0.48 m–1 in spring. Furthermore, a strong correlation between the chlorophyll a concentration and the attenuation coefficient was found at visible wavelengths on the Bering Sea shelf. Spatially, the chlorophyll a concentration was higher on the northern shelf ((5.18±3.78) mg/m3) than on the southern shelf ((3.64±2.51) mg/m3), which was consistent with the distribution of the attenuation coefficient. Seasonally, the consumption of nutrients by blooms resulted in minimum chlorophyll a concentration ((0.78±0.51) mg/m3) and attenuation coefficient values in summer. In terms of the vertical structure, both the attenuation coefficient and the chlorophyll a concentration tended to reach maximum values at the same depth, and the depth of the maximum values increased as the surface temperature increased in summer. Moreover, an empirical model was fitted with a power function based on the correlation between the chlorophyll a concentration and the attenuation coefficient at 412–555 nm. In addition, a spectral model was constructed according to the relationship between the attenuation coefficients at 490 nm and at other wavelengths, which provides a method for estimating the bio-optical properties of the Bering Sea shelf.
2022, 41(10): 1-2.
LIC color texture enhancement algorithm for ocean vector field data based on HSV color mapping and cumulative distribution function
Hongbo Zheng, Qin Shao, Jie Chen, Yangyang Shan, Xujia Qin, Ji Ma, Xiaogang Xu
2022, 41(10): 171-180. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2020-6
Texture-based visualization method is a common method in the visualization of vector field data. Aiming at adding color mapping to the texture of ocean vector field and solving the ambiguity of vector direction in texture image, a new color texture enhancement algorithm based on the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) for the vector field data is proposed, which combines the HSV color mapping and cumulative distribution function calculation of vector field data. This algorithm can be summarized as follows: firstly, the vector field data is convoluted twice by line integration to get the gray texture image. Secondly, the method of mapping vector data to each component of the HSV color space is established. And then, the vector field data is mapped into HSV color space and converted from HSV to RGB values to get the color image. Thirdly, the cumulative distribution function of the RGB color components of the gray texture image and the color image is constructed to enhance the gray texture and RGB color values. Finally, both the gray texture image and the color image are fused to get the color texture. The experimental results show that the proposed LIC color texture enhancement algorithm is capable of generating a better display of vector field data. Furthermore, the ambiguity of vector direction in the texture images is solved and the direction information of the vector field is expressed more accurately.
Marine Information Science
Remote sensing survey and research on internal solitary waves in the South China Sea-Western Pacific-East Indian Ocean (SCS-WPAC-EIND)
Junmin Meng, Lina Sun, Hao Zhang, Beilei Hu, Fucheng Hou, Sude Bao
2022, 41(10): 154-170. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2018-0
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are common mesoscale dynamic processes in the ocean that are spread throughout the world’s oceans. The South China Sea (SCS), Western Pacific (WPAC) and Indian Ocean (EIND) (SCS-WPAC-EIND) are areas where ISWs frequently occur. In particular, in the northern part of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, Andaman Sea, Lombok Strait and northeastern part of Taiwan Island, ISWs exist almost year-round. Remote sensing is an important technique to carry out investigations and research on ISWs on a large scale. In particular, optical sensors represented by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can observe ISWs for a long time and on a large scale, while SAR sensors such as Sentinel-1 A/B can compensate for the deficiencies in optical sensors and comprehensively observe ISWs. Based on many years of remote sensing surveys of ISWs, this paper uses MODIS and Sentinel-1 satellite remote sensing images of more than 70 000 scenes from 2010 to 2020 to carry out survey studies of ISWs in the SCS-WPAC-EIND. The survey systematically gives the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of ISWs in the SCS-WPAC-EIND and focuses on the analysis of the ISW characteristics in main areas in the SCS-WPAC-EIND, thereby providing basic data for further research on ISWs.