2020 Vol. 39, No. 12

2020-12 Contents
2020, (12): 1-2.
2020- Contents
2020, (12): 1-10.
Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Accuracy assessment of global ocean tide models in the South China Sea using satellite altimeter and tide gauge data
Yanguang Fu, Yikai Feng, Dongxu Zhou, Xinghua Zhou, Jie Li, Qiuhua Tang
2020, 39(12): 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1685-y
In this study, to meet the need for accurate tidal prediction, the accuracy of global ocean tide models was assessed in the South China Sea (0°–26°N, 99°–121°E). Seven tide models, namely, DTU10, EOT11a, FES2014, GOT4.8, HAMTIDE12, OSU12 and TPXO8, were considered. The accuracy of eight major tidal constituents (i.e., Q1, O1, P1, K1, N2, M2, S2 and K2) were assessed for the shallow water and coastal areas based on the tidal constants derived from multi-mission satellite altimetry (TOPEX and Jason series) and tide gauge observations. The root mean square values of each constituent between satellite-derived tidal constants and tide models were found in the range of 0.72–1.90 cm in the deep ocean (depth>200 m) and 1.18–5.63 cm in shallow water area (depth<200 m). Large inter-model discrepancies were noted in the Strait of Malacca and the Taiwan Strait, which could be attributable to the complicated hydrodynamic systems and the paucity of high-quality satellite altimetry data. In coastal regions, an accuracy performance was investigated using tidal results from 37 tide gauge stations. The root sum square values were in the range of 9.35–19.11 cm, with the FES2014 model exhibiting slightly superior performance.
Seasonal variability of mesoscale eddies in the Banda Sea inferred from altimeter data
Baiyang Chen, Lingling Xie, Quanan Zheng, Lei Zhou, Lei Wang, Baoxin Feng, Zipeng Yu
2020, 39(12): 11-20. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1665-2
Using the mesoscale eddy trajectory atlas product derived from satellite altimeter data from 1993 to 2016, this study analyzes statistical characteristics and seasonal variability of mesoscale eddies in the Banda Sea of the Indonesian seas. The results show that there were 147 mesoscale eddies that occurred in the Banda Sea, of which 137 eddies were locally generated and 10 originated from outside. The total numbers of cyclonic eddies (CEs, clockwise) and anticyclonic eddies (AEs, anticlockwise) are 76 and 71, respectively. Seasonally, the number of CEs (AEs) is twice larger than the number of AEs (CEs) in winter (summer). In winter, CEs are distributed in the southern and AEs in the northern basins, respectively, but the opposite thing occurs in summer, i.e., the polarities of mesoscale eddies observed at the same location reverse seasonally. The mechanisms of polarity distribution reversal (PDR) of mesoscale eddies are examined with reanalysis data of ocean currents and winds. The results indicate that the basin-scale vorticity, wind stress curl, and the meridional shear of zonal current reverse seasonally, which are favorable to the PDR of mesoscale eddies. The possible generation mechanisms of mesoscale eddies include direct wind forcing, barotropic and baroclinic instabilities, of which the direct wind forcing should play the dominant role.
Marine Chemistry
The potential of contribution of mangrove-derived organic matter in intertidal sediments as a proxy of mangrove development in the northern Beibu Gulf
Jun Zhang, Xianwei Meng, Peng Xia, Xiangqin Wang, Shan Gao
2020, 39(12): 21-29. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1640-y
Located between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, mangrove forests are sensitive to changes in climate. The responses of mangrove ecosystems to climate change in the future can be understood by reconstructing past mangrove dynamics using proxies preserved in the intertidal sediments. Considering the complexity of the proxies commonly used, it is necessary to develop a relatively simple, inexpensive proxy. In this study, available chemical tracers (δ13Corg and C:N) of the four cores (YLW02, YLW03, O18, and Q37) from the intertidal zone of the northern Beibu Gulf (NBG) and a three-end-member (mangrove, sea grass, and suspended particulate matter) model was utilized to determine the contribution of mangrove-derived organic matter (CMOM) in carbonate-free sediments. Compared with the summed concentration of mangrove pollen (SCMP), a significant positive correlation between CMOM and SCMP is displayed. The calculated CMOM for an additional 210Pb-dated sediment core from the Yingluo Bay, NBG (YLW01) clearly indicates a mangrove development going through degradation, flourishing, relative degradation, and relative flourishing, which are separately in correspondence with the lowest, highest, lower, and higher air temperature and rainfall in the time intervals of 1890–1918 AD, 1919–1956 AD, 1957–1990 AD, and 1991–2010 AD. This suggests that CMOM preserved in intertidal sediments has a potential to reconstruct historical mangrove development in high resolution, at the very least, along the coasts of the NBG.
Nitrogen fixation driven by mesoscale eddies and the Kuroshio Current in the northern South China Sea and the East China Sea
Liuyang Li, Chao Wu, Jun Sun, Shuqun Song, Changling Ding, Danyue Huang, Laxman Pujari
2020, 39(12): 30-41. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1691-0
N2 fixation rates (NFR, in terms of N) in the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and the East China Sea (ECS) were measured using the acetylene reduction assay in summer and winter, 2009. NFR of the surface water ranged from 1.14 nmol/(L·d) to 10.40 nmol/(L·d) (average at (4.89±3.46) nmol/(L·d), n=11) in summer and 0.74 nmol/(L·d) to 29.45 nmol/(L·d) (average at (7.81±8.50) nmol/(L·d), n=15) in winter. Significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity emerged in our study: the anticyclonic eddies (AE) (P<0.01) and the Kuroshio Current (KC) (P<0.05) performed significantly higher NFR than that in the cyclonic eddies or no-eddy area (CEONE), indicating NFR was profoundly influenced by the physical process of the Kuroshio and mesoscale eddies. The depth-integrated N2 fixation rates (INF, in terms of N) ranged from 52.4 μmol/(m2·d) to 905.2 μmol/(m2·d) (average at (428.9±305.5) μmol/(m2·d), n=15) in the winter. The contribution of surface NFR to primary production (PP) ranged from 1.7% to 18.5% in the summer, and the mean contribution of INF to new primary production (NPP) in the nSCS and ECS were estimated to be 11.0% and 36.7% in the winter. The contribution of INF to NPP (3.0%–93.9%) also decreased from oligotrophic sea toward the eutrophic waters affected by runoffs or the CEONE. Furthermore, we observed higher contributions compared to previous studies, revealing the vital roles of nitrogen fixation in sustaining the carbon pump of the nSCS and ECS.
Nitrogen isotopic fractionation of particulate organic matter production and remineralization in the Prydz Bay and its adjacent areas
Chunyan Ren, Min Chen, Laodong Guo, Jian Zeng, Renming Jia, Xiao Liu, Minfang Zheng, Yusheng Qiu
2020, 39(12): 42-53. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1698-6
During the 29th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition, spatial variations in nitrogen isotopic composition of particulate nitrogen (δ15NPN) and their controlling factors were examined in detail with regard to nitrate drawdown by phytoplankton and particulate nitrogen (PN) remineralization in the Prydz Bay and its adjacent areas. To better constrain the nitrogen transformations, the physical and chemical parameters, including temperature, salinity, nutrients, PN and δ15NPN in seawater column were measured from surface to bottom. In addition, the nitrogen isotopic fractionation factor of nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton in the mixed layer, and the nitrogen isotopic fractionation factor of PN remineralization below the mixed layer were estimated using Rayleigh model and Steady State model, respectively. Our results showed that suspended particles had its lowest δ15NPN in the surface layer, which was due to the preferential assimilation of 14N in nitrate by phytoplankton. The δ15NPN in the mixed layer of the Prydz Bay and its adjacent areas decreased from the inner shelf to the outer basin, ascribing to the effect of isotope fractionation during phytoplankton assimilation. In mixed layer, the spatial distribution of δ15NPN associated with particulate organic matter (POM) production can be well interpreted according to Rayleigh model and Steady State model. The nitrogen isotope fractionation factor during phytoplankton assimilating nitrate was estimated as 10.0‰ by Steady State model, which was more reasonable than that calculated by Rayleigh model. These results validate the previous reports of fractionation factor during nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton. Increasing δ15NPN with depth below the euphotic zone correlated with the decreasing PN contents, and it was attributed to preferential remineralization of 14N in PN by bacteria. In subsurface and deep layer, the δ15NPN distributions also conformed to Rayleigh model and Steady State model during PN remineralization, with a fractionation factor of about 3.6‰ and 3.2‰, respectively. It is the first time to estimate the fractionation factor during POM production and remineralization in the Prydz Bay and its adjacent areas. Such fractionation may provide a useful tool for the follow-up study of the nitrogen dynamics in the Southern Ocean.
Marine Biology
Combining otolith elemental signatures with multivariate analytical models to verify the migratory pattern of Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius) in the southern Yellow Sea
Xindong Pan, Zhenjiang Ye, Binduo Xu, Tao Jiang, Jian Yang, Jiahua Cheng, Yongjun Tian
2020, 39(12): 54-64. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1606-0
Japanese Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus niphonius, is a commercially important, highly migratory species that is widely distributed throughout the northwestern Pacific region. However, its life history and migratory patterns are only partially understood. This study used otolith chemistry to investigate the migratory pattern of S. niphonius in the southern Yellow Sea, an important fishing ground. Transverse sections of otoliths from 15 age-1 spawning or spent individuals, comprising up to one complete migration cycle, were analyzed from the core to the margin by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The ratios of the element to Ca were integrated with microstructural analysis to produce age-related elemental profiles. Combining multi-elemental analysis of otolith composition with multivariate analytical models, we quantified structural changes in otolith chemistry profiles. Results revealed there were diverse changing patterns of otolith chemistry profiles for detected elements and the elements of Na, Mg, Sr and Ba were important for the chronological signal. Five clusters were identified through chronological clustering, representing the five life stages from the early stage to the spawning stage. Variation of Ba:Ca ratio was most informative, showing a step-decreasing pattern in the first four stages and a rebound in the spawning stage. These results support the hypothesized migratory pattern of S. niphonius: hatching and spending their early life in the coastal sandy ridges system of the southern Yellow Sea, migrating northeastward and offshore for feeding during juvenile stage, aggregating in early October and migrating outward to the Jeju Island for wintering, and returning to the coastal waters for spawning. This study demonstrated the value of life-history related otolith chemistry profiles combined with multivariate analytical models was a means to verify the migration patterns of S. niphonius at regional scales with potential application in fisheries assessment and management.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid grouper Epinephelus moara (♀)×Epinephelus tukula (♂), and phylogenetic analysis in subfamily Epinephelinae
Zhentong Li, Yongsheng Tian, Meiling Cheng, Linna Wang, Jingjing Zhang, Yuping Wu, Zunfang Pang, Wenhui Ma, Jieming Zhai
2020, 39(12): 65-75. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1689-7
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of hybrid grouper Epinephelus moara (♀)×Epinephelus tukula (♂), a new hybrid progeny, can provide valuable information for analyzing phylogeny and molecular evolution. In this study, the mitogenome was analyzed using PCR amplification and sequenced, then the phylogenetic relationship of E. moara (♀)×E. tukula (♂) and 35 other species were constructed using Maximum Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining methods with the nucleotide sequences of 13 conserved protein-coding genes (PCGs). The complete mitogenome of E. moara (♀)×E. tukula (♂) was 16 695 bp in length, which contained 13 PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a replication origin and a control region. The composition and order of these genes were consistent with most other vertebrates. Of the 13 PCGs, 12 PCGs were encoded on the heavy strand, and ND6 was encoded on the light strand. The mitogenome of the E. moara (♀)×E. tukula (♂) had a higher AT nucleotide content, a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. All protein initiation codons were ATG, except for COX and ND4 (GTG), ATP6 (CTG), and ND3 (ATA). ND2, COXII, ND3, ND4 and Cytb had T as the terminating codon, COXIII’s termination codon was TA, and the remaining PCGs of that were TAA. All tRNA genes, except for the lacking DHU-arm of tRNASer (AGN), were predicted to form a typical cloverleaf secondary structure. In addition, sequence similarity analysis (99% identity) and phylogenetic analysis (100% bootstrap value) indicated that the mitochondrial genome was maternally inherited. This study provides mitogenome data for studying genetic, phylogenetic relationships and breeding of grouper.
Research in migration route of hatchery released Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) in the Bohai Bay using method of SSR marker
Weiji Wang, Ding Lyu, Mosang Wang, Kefeng Liu, Jie Kong, Xiujuan Shan, Xianshi Jin
2020, 39(12): 76-81. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1688-8
This study provides new insights for the hatchery released Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), including proportion, dynamic migration route, after they were released into nature for stock enhancement using a new strategy quite different than ever. Chinese shrimp were sampled at 22 survey stations during two investigation voyages acrossing 74 survey stations in the Bohai Sea from July 16 to August 9 in 2015. Among 289 sampled individuals during the second voyage, totally 155 shrimps were identified as hatchery shrimp released into the Laizhou Bay at mid-May in 2015 based on finger-print of eight SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers, and the proportion of hatchery released shrimp in recapture samples were from 41.30%–85.71% in each station with an average value 53.63%, which verified a previous view point that up to 90% of autumn season Chinese shrimp landing in the Bohai Sea were composed of hatchery released. Meanwhile, the dynamic migration route of hatchery released shrimp revealed that part of released shrimp migrated heading northwest along the west coast of the Bohai Sea up to the Bohai Bay but just remained at the Laizhou Bay until over-wintering migration at mid-October when they initiate over-wintering migration. Present unnatural spring season shrimp fishing model cut the throat of spawner shrimp chance to swim back to their respective spawning plants at each spring, it still no chance to clarify whether the hatchery released shrimp could replenish to the reproduce population and complete a whole life cycle as same as their natural relatives.
Two new species of medusae (Cnidaria) from the coastal waters of the northern Beibu Gulf
Xiaoyin Chen, Yanyan Yang, Yanguo Wang, Zhenzu Xu, Mao Lin, Chunguang Wang
2020, 39(12): 82-89. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1695-9
Medusae in 116 samples collected from the coastal waters of the northern Beibu Gulf during four seasonal oceanographic cruises from October 2017 to August 2018 were analyzed. In total, 34 species were identified. Two of the species are new to science, Proboscidactyla pentacanalis Xu, Chen & Yang sp. nov. and Helgicirrha apapillata Xu, Chen & Wang sp. nov., and three species are newly recorded in the Beibu Gulf, i.e., Hydractinia vacuolata Xu & Huang, 2006, Proboscidactyla flavicirrata Brandnt, 1834 and Phialella macrogona Xu, Huang & Wang, 1985. Collections of the species were deposited at the Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources.
Detection of two pathogenic marine ciliates Ancistrum haliotis and A. crassum (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) by fluorescence in situ hybridization
Zifeng Zhan, Kuidong Xu
2020, 39(12): 90-94. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1683-0
The scuticociliatid ciliates Ancistrum haliotis and A. crassum are parasites that may cause high mortality in the cultured abalone Haliotis spp. and the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum. Traditional identification with silver staining methods is hampered by their morphological similarities to closely related species and the complicated procedures of morphological analysis. We designed two SSU rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes labeled with a fluorochrome, and optimized the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocols for identification of A. halioti and A. crassum, respectively. The assays resulted in a clear identification by strong fluorescence signals from the oligonucleotide probes. The method can be used for quick and accurate quantitative analysis of A. haliotis and A. crassum infections on host molluscs.
Use of QSAR and SSD methods on deriving predicted no-effect concentrations in seawater and sediment for ten individualparent- and alkyl-PAHs and a case study on the assessment of their ecological risks from the Dalian Bay, China
Ying Wang, Xing Liu, Yi Cong, Jin Fei, Juying Wang, Dian Zhang, Liang Liu, Jingli Mu, Ziwei Yao
2020, 39(12): 95-105. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1693-y
Parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs), which are a class of important toxic components of crude oil especially in the marine environment, exhibit adverse effects on aquatic life and potentially pose a human health risk. However, the lack of chronic toxicity data is one of the hindrances for alkyl-PAHs when assessing their ecological risks. In this study, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) in seawater and marine sediment for ten parent- and alkyl-PAHs were derived by applying species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and quantitative structure−activity relationships (QSARs). The local area, Dalian Bay, where an oil-spilled accident happened in 2010, was chosen as a case site to assess ecological risks for ten PAHs in surface seawaters and marine sediments. Their PNECs in seawater and sediment for protecting aquatic organisms in marine ecosystems were calculated and recommended in the range of 0.012−2.79 μg/L and 48.2−1337 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Overall, the derived PNECs for the studied PAHs in seawater and marine sediment were comparable to those obtained by classical methods. Risk quotient results indicate low ecological risks to ecosystems for ten parent- and alkyl-PAHs in surface seawaters and surface sediments from the Dalian Bay. These findings provide a first insight into the PNECs and ecological risks of alkyl-PAHs, emphasizing the role of the computational toxicology in ecological risk assessments. The use of QSARs has been identified as a valuable tool for preliminarily assessing ecological risks of emerging pollutants, being more predictable of real exposure scenarios for risk assessment purposes.
Marine Technology
Noise reduction of acoustic Doppler velocimeter data based on Kalman filtering and autoregressive moving average models
Chuanjiang Huang, Fangli Qiao, Hongyu Ma
2020, 39(12): 106-113. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1641-x
Oceanic turbulence measurements made by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) suffer from noise that potentially affects the estimates of turbulence statistics. This study examines the abilities of Kalman filtering and autoregressive moving average models to eliminate noise in ADV velocity datasets of laboratory experiments and offshore observations. Results show that the two methods have similar performance in ADV de-noising, and both effectively reduce noise in ADV velocities, even in cases of high noise. They eliminate the noise floor at high frequencies of the velocity spectra, leading to a longer range that effectively fits the Kolmogorov −5/3 slope at mid-range frequencies. After de-noising adopting the two methods, the values of the mean velocity are almost unchanged, while the root-mean-square horizontal velocities and thus turbulent kinetic energy decrease appreciably in these experiments. The Reynolds stress is also affected by high noise levels, and de-noising thus reduces uncertainties in estimating the Reynolds stress.
Wind speed inversion and in-orbit assessment of the imaging altimeter on Tiangong-2 space station
Youguang Zhang, Qingliu Bao, Mingsen Lin, Shuyan Lang
2020, 39(12): 114-120. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1687-9
Imaging altimeter (IALT) is a new type of radar altimeter system. In contrast to the conventional nadir-looking altimeters, such as HY-2A altimeter, Jason-1/2, and TOPEX/Poseidon, IALT observes the earth surface at low incident angles (2.5°–8°), so its swath is much wider and its spatial resolution is much higher than the previous altimeters. This paper presents a wind speed inversion method for the recently launched IALT onboard Tiangong-2 space station. Since the current calibration results of IALT do not agree well with the well-known wind geophysical model function at low incidence angles, a neural network is used to retrieve the ocean surface wind speed in this study. The wind speed inversion accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the ECMWF reanalysis wind speed, buoy wind speed, and in-situ ship measurements. The results show that the retrieved wind speed bias is about –0.21 m/s, and the root-mean-square (RMS) error is about 1.85 m/s. The wind speed accuracy of IALT meets the performance requirement.
Sand barrier morphological evolution based on time series remote sensing images: a case study of Anhaiao, Pingtan
Heshan Lin, Xingguang Yu, Zhigang Yu, Yikang Gao, Jinyan Xu, Aiping Feng, Zhijun Liu, Degang Jiang, Fan Yu
2020, 39(12): 121-134. doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1684-z
The morphological evolution of the sand barrier in the Anhaiao coastal zone of Pingtan from 1996 to 2018 was studied. Tidal correction was used to refine the location of the coastline. A standard deviation ellipse method was applied to further analyze the movement of the barrier head with the axis and rotation angle. A natural neighbor interpolation (NNI) method was carried out to calculate the terrain of the intertidal area, and the erosion and deposition characteristics were illustrated based on the terrain. The results showed that the northern part of the sand barrier facing the lagoon area was deposited over the whole studied period, while erosion has always occurred in the southern part of the sand barrier facing the open sea. The erosion and deposition were slightly different on both sides of the barrier head due to hydrodynamic turbulence. The middle sand barrier moved 102.60 m away from its original location in 1996, and the end of the barrier moved 65.45 m. The head of the sand barrier continued moving 379 m to the northwest. Consequently, the preliminary morphological evolution of the sand barrier corresponding to the distance and direction of movement was detected.