## 2021 Vol. 40, No. 9

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2021, 40(9): .
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2021, 40(9): 1-2.
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2021, 40(9): 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1811-5
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Permeable coastal sediments act as a reactive node in the littoral zone, transforming nutrients via a wide range of biogeochemical reactions. Reaction rates are controlled by abiotic factors, e.g., salinity, temperature or solute concentration. Here, a series of incubation experiments, using flow-through reactors, were conducted to simulate the biogeochemical cycling of nitrate (\begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document}) and phosphorus (P) in permeable sediments under different \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} availability conditions (factor I) along a salinity gradient (admixture of river and seawater, factor II). In an oligotrophic scenario, i.e., unamended \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} concentrations in both river and seawater, sediments acted as a permanent net source of \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} to the water column. The peak production rate occurred at an intermediate salinity (20). Increasing \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} availability in river water significantly enhanced net \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} removal rates within the salinity range of 0 to 30, likely via the denitrification pathway based on the sediment microbiota composition. In this scenario, the most active removal was obtained at salinity of 10. When both river and seawater were spiked with \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document}, the highest removal rate switched to the highest salinity (36). It suggests the salinity preference of the \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} removal pathway by local denitrifiers (e.g., Bacillus and Paracoccus) and that \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} removal in coastal sediments can be significantly constrained by the dilution related \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} availability. Compared with the obtained variation for \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} reactions, permeable sediments acted as a sink of soluble reactive P in all treatments, regardless of salinity and \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} input concentrations, indicating a possibility of P-deficiency for coastal water from the intensive cycling in permeable sediments. Furthermore, the net production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all treatments was positively correlated with the measured \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} reaction rates, indicating that the DOC supply may not be the key factor for \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_3^-$\end{document} removal rates due to the consumption by intensive aerobic respiration. Considering the intensive production of recalcitrant carbon solutes, the active denitrification was assumed to be supported by sedimentary organic matter.
2021, 40(9): 13-22. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1862-7
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In certain regions, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the ocean plays a significant role in coastal material fluxes and their biogeochemical cycle; therefore, the impact of SGD on the ecosystem cannot be ignored. In this study, SGD was estimated using naturally occurring radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) in a subtropical estuary along the Beibu Gulf, China. The results showed that the Ra activities of submarine groundwater were approximately 10 times higher than those of surface water. By assuming a steady state and using an Ra mass balance model, the SGD flux in May 2018 was estimated to be 5.98×106 m3/d and 3.60×106 m3/d based on 224Ra and 223Ra, respectively. At the same time, the activities of Ra isotopes fluctuated within a tidal cycle; that is, a lower activity was observed at high tide and a higher activity was seen at low tide. Based on these variations, the average tidal pumping fluxes of SGD were 1.15×106 m3/d and 2.44×106 m3/d with 224Ra and 223Ra, respectively. Tidal-driven SGD accounts for 24%–51% of the total SGD. Therefore, tidal pumping is an important driving force of the SGD in the Dafengjiang River (DFJR) Estuary. Furthermore, the SGD of the DFJR Estuary in the coastal zone contributes significantly to the seawater composition of the Beibu Gulf and the material exchange between land and sea.
2021, 40(9): 23-32. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1899-7
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Cold seeps are pervasive along the continental margin worldwide, and are recognized as hotspots for elemental cycling pathway on Earth. In this study, analyses of pore water geochemical compositions of one ~400 cm piston core (S3) and the application of a mass balance model are conducted to assess methane-associated biogeochemical reactions and uncover the relationship of methane in shallow sediment with gas hydrate reservoir at the Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan. The results revealed that approximately 77% of sulfate is consumed by the predominant biogeochemical process of anaerobic oxidation of methane. However, the estimated sulfate-methane interface depth is ~400 cm below sea floor with the methane diffusive flux of 0.039 mol/(m2·a), suggesting the activity of methane seepage. Based on the δ13CDIC mass balance model combined with the contribution proportion of different dissolved inorganic carbon sources, this study calculated the δ13C of the exogenous methane to be −57.9‰, indicating that the exogenous methane may be a mixture source, including thermogenic and biogenic methane. The study of pore water geochemistry at Makran accretionary wedge off Pakistan may have considerable implications for understanding the specific details on the dynamics of methane in cold seeps and provide important evidence for the potential occurrence of subsurface gas hydrate in this area.
2021, 40(9): 33-42. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1898-8
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Identifying distinct tectonic units is key to understanding the geotectonic framework and distribution law of oil and gas resources. The South China Sea and its adjacent areas have undergone complex tectonic evolution processes, and the division of tectonic units is controversial. Guided by block tectonics theory, this study divide the South China Sea and its adjacent areas into several distinguished tectonic units relying on known boundary markers such as sutures (ophiolite belts), subduction-collision zones, orogenic belts, and deep faults. This work suggests that the study area is occupied by nine stable blocks (West Burma Block, Sibumasu Block, Lanping-Simao Block, Indochina Block, Yangtze Block, Cathaysian Block, Qiongnan Block, Nansha Block, and Northwest Sulu Block), two suture zones (Majiang suture zone and Southeast Yangtze suture zone), two accretionary zones (Sarawak-Sulu accretionary zone and East Sulawesi accretionary zone), one subduction-collision zone (Rakhine-Java-Timor subduction-collision zone), one ramp zone (Philippine islands ramp zone), and six small oceanic marginal sea basins (South China Sea Basin, Sulu Sea Basin, Sulawesi Sea Basin, Banda Sea Basin, Makassar Basin, and Andaman Sea Basin). This division reflects the tectonic activities, crustal structural properties, and evolutionary records of each evaluated tectonic unit. It is of great theoretical and practical importance to understand the tectonic framework to support the exploration of oil and gas resources in the South China Sea and its adjacent areas.
2021, 40(9): 43-52. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1775-5
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Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are potential archives of the Cu and Zn isotope compositions of seawater through time. In this study, the Cu and Zn isotopes of the top surface of 28 Fe-Mn crusts and 2 Fe-Mn nodules were analysed by MC-ICP-MS using combined sample-standard bracketing for mass bias correction. The Zn isotope compositions of the top surface of Fe-Mn crusts are in the range of 0.71‰ to 1.08‰, with a mean δ66Zn value of 0.94‰±0.21‰ (2SD, n=28). The δ65Cu values of the top surface of Fe-Mn crusts range from 0.33‰ to 0.73‰, with a mean value of 0.58‰±0.20‰ (2SD, n=28). The Cu isotope compositions of Fe-Mn crusts are isotopically lighter than that of dissolved Cu in deep seawater (0.58‰ vs. 0.9‰). In contrast, the δ66Zn values of Fe-Mn crusts appear to be isotopically heavy compared to deep seawater (0.94‰±0.21‰ vs. 0.51‰±0.14‰). The isotope fractionation between Fe-Mn crusts and seawater is attributed to equilibrium partitioning between the sorption to crusts and the organic-ligand-bound Cu and Zn in seawater. The Cu and Zn isotopes in the top surface of Fe-Mn crusts are not a direct reflection of the Cu and Zn isotopes, but a function of Cu and Zn isotopes in modern seawater. This study proposes that Fe-Mn crusts have the potential to be archives for paleoceanography through Cu and Zn isotope analysis.
2021, 40(9): 53-65. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1785-3
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In recent years, the small pelagic fishery on the Pacific northwest coast of Mexico has significantly increased fishing pressure on thread herring Opisthonema spp. This fishery is regulated using a precautionary approach (acceptable biological catch (ABC) and minimum catch size). However, due to fishing dynamics, fish aggregation habits and increased fishing mortality, periodic biomass assessments are necessary to estimate ABC and assess the resource status. The Catch-MSY approach was used to analyze historical series of thread herring catches off the western Baja California Sur (BCS, 1981–2018) and the Gulf of California (GC, 1972–2018) to estimate exploitable biomass and target reference points in order to obtain catch quotas. According to the results, in GC, the maximum biomass reached in 1972 (at the beginning of fishery) and minimum biomass reached in 2015; the estimated exploitable biomass for 2019 was 42.2×104 t; and the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was 15.4×104 t. In the western BCS coast, the maximum biomass was reached in 1981 (at the beginning of fishery) and minimum biomass was reached in 2017; the estimated exploitable biomass for 2019 was 3.2×104 t; and the MSY was 1.2×104 t. Both stocks showed a decrease in biomass over the past years and were currently near to point of full exploitation. The results suggest that the use of the Catch-MSY method is suitable to obtain annual biomass estimates, in order to establish an ABC, to know the current state of the resource, and to avoid overcoming the potential recovery of the stocks.
2021, 40(9): 66-73. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1799-z
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An introduced turbot population was used to establish families and to estimate genetic parameters of the offspring. However, there is a lack of pedigree information, and common environmental effects can be introduced when each full-sib family is raised in a single tank. Therefore, in the genetic evaluation, SSRs (simple sequence repeats) were used to reconstruct the pedigree and to calculate molecular relatedness between individuals, and the early mixed-family culture model was used to remove the impact of the common environmental effects. After 100 d of early mixed culture, twenty SSRs were used to cluster 20 families and to calculate paired molecular relationships (n=880). Additive genetic matrices were constructed using molecular relatedness (MR) and pedigree reconstruction (PR) and were then applied to the same animal model to estimate genetic parameters. Based on PR, the heritabilities for body weight and body length were 0.214±0.124 and 0.117±0.141, and based on MR they were 0.101±0.031 and 0.102±0.034, respectively. Cross validation showed that the accuracies of the estimated breeding values based on MR (body weight and body length of 0.717±0.045 and 0.629±0.141, respectively) were higher than those of PR (body weight and body length of 0.692±0.052 and 0.615±0.060, respectively). The MR method ensure availability of all genotyped selection candidates, thereby improving the accuracy of the breeding value estimation.
2021, 40(9): 74-81. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1787-1
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Chaeturichthys stigmatias and Amblychaeturichthys hexanema belong to the family Gobiidae, which are offshore warm fish species and widely distribute in the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA) sequences were used to analyze the interspecific differences between the two species. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the interspecific distance was significantly higher than the intraspecific genetic distance. The Neighbor-Joining tree showed two separate clusters, without sharing haplotype. The mitochondrial genome sequence of C. stigmatias was also reported. This genome was 17 134 bp in size, with a high A+T content of 55.9%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the tandem 13 coding protein genes nucleotide sequences indicated that C. stigmatias showed a close relationship with A. hexanema. This study can provide the basic genetic data for two species and will help for constructing the phylogeny of the Gobiiade.
2021, 40(9): 82-89. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1863-6
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Growth and energy budget of marine amphipod juvenile Eogammarus possjeticus at different temperatures (20°C, 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C, 32°C and 34°C) were investigated in this study. The results showed that the cumulative mortality rate increased significantly with rising temperature (p<0.01), and exceeded 50% after 24 h when temperature was above 30°C. With the temperature increasing from 20°C to 26°C, the ingestion rate and absorption rate increased, but decreased significantly above 28°C (p<0.01), indicating a decline in feeding ability at high temperatures. The specific growth rate increased with rising temperature, but decreased significantly (p<0.01) after reaching the maximum value at 24°C. Similarly, the oxygen consumption and ammonia emission rates also showed a trend of first increase and then decrease. However, the O:N ratio decreased first and then increased with rising temperature, indicating that the energy demand of E. possjeticus juvenile transferred from metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid to protein. In the energy distribution of amphipods, the proportion of each energy is different. With rising temperature, the ratio of the energy deposited for growth accounted for ingested gross energy showing a trend of decrease, while the energy lost to respiration, ammonia excretion, and feces accounted for ingested gross energy being showed a trend of increase. It seemed that rising temperature increased the metabolism and energy consumption of the amphipods and, meanwhile, decreased the energy used for growth, which may be an important reason for the slow growth and small body size of the amphipods during the summer high-temperature period.
2021, 40(9): 90-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1795-1
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Two species of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 from the South China Sea are described and illustrated. The specimens are in the Nassariidae collection of the Marine Biological Museum of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. Nassarius concavus sp. nov., from the sandy bottom at a depth of 180 m, resembles Nassarius glabrus Zhang and Zhang, 2014 in general shell morphology, but differs from the latter in having a smaller, more slender adult shell without axial ribs on the upper teleoconch whorls. Nassarius nanshaensis sp. nov., from the Nansha Islands at a depth of 56–147 m, is similar to Nassarius maxiutongi Zhang, Zhang and Li, 2019 in the shell sculpture, but differs in having a more slender shell with a higher spire, and fewer cusps on the rachidian tooth (9–11 vs. 13–17).
2021, 40(9): 94-104. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1897-9
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Nitrification is a key step in the global nitrogen cycle. Compared with autotrophic nitrification, heterotrophic nitrification remains poorly understood. In this study, Halomonas venusta MA-ZP17-13, isolated from seawater in shrimp aquaculture (Penaeus vannamei), could simultaneously undertake nitrification and denitrification. With the initial ammonium concentration at 100 mg/L, the maximum ammonium-nitrogen removal rate reached 98.7% under the optimal conditions including C/N concentration ratio at 5.95, pH at 8.93, and NaCl at 2.33%. The corresponding average removal rate was 1.37 mg/(L·h) (according to nitrogen) in 3 d at 11.2°C. By whole genome sequencing and analysis, nitrification- and denitrification-related genes were identified, including ammonia monooxygenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, nitric oxide dioxygenase and nitric oxide synthase; while no gene encoding hydroxylamine oxidase was identified, it implied the existence of a novel nitrification pathway from hydroxylamine to nitrate. These results indicate heterotrophic bacterium H. venusta MA-ZP17-13 can undertake simultaneous nitrification and denitrification at low temperature and has potential for \begin{document}${\rm {NH}}_4^+$\end{document}-N/NH3-N removal in marine aquaculture systems.
2021, 40(9): 105-116. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1779-1
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In consideration of the rapid degradation of coral reef ecosystems, the establishment of models is helpful to comprehend the degradation mechanism of coral reef ecosystems and predict the development process of coral reef communities. According to the characteristics of complex ecosystem of tropical coral reefs in China, the coral reef functional group is the core level variable; combined with the multiple feedback effects of coral reef functional groups and environmental changes, the study presents a coral reef ecosystem dynamics model with hermatypic corals as the core. Based on the simulation of the assumed initial value and the internal feedback of the system, the results show that in the basic simulation (relative health conditions), the coverage area of live corals and coral reefs generally decreased first and then increased, and increased by 4.67% and 6.38% between 2010 and 2050, respectively. Based on the calibration model and the current situation of the studied area, the multi-factor disturbance effects of coral reef communities were simulated and explored by setting up three scenarios involving fishing policy, terrestrial deposition, and inorganic nitrogen emissions. Among them, in the single factor disturbance, the fishing policy exerts the most direct impact on the community decline; and the succession phenomenon is obvious; the terrestrial sedimentation has a faster and more integrated effect on the community decline; the effect of inorganic nitrogen emission on the community decline is relatively slow. In the double/multi-factor disturbance, the superimposed disturbance will aggravate the multi-source feedback effect of the coral reef communities development, accelerate the community decay rate, and make its development trajectory more complicated and diverse. This method provides a scientific and feasible method for simulating the damage of long-term coral reef community and exploring the development law and adaptive management of coral reef ecosystems. In the future, it can be further studied in the ecological restoration process and decision-making direction of coral reefs.
2021, 40(9): 117-125. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1892-1
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This study conducted four cruises during 2014–2017 to investigate relationships between macrobenthic communities and sediment contaminations in sea area around the Zhoushan Archipelago. Fourteen sites were categorized into three groups: high total heavy metal contamination content (HHMC), high total petroleum hydrocarbon content (HTPH), and low content ratio of heavy metal contamination content to total petroleum hydrocarbon content (HMC/TPH) areas. Four main taxa of macrofauna (polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, and crustaceans) were determined to respond to environmental factors differently. While tolerant polychaetes being the minimal impact by environmental factors, bivalves were threated by heavy metal pollutions in sediment. Additionally, body size distribution frequency demonstrated that macrofauna in the low HMC/TPH areas were less disturbed by contamination than those in the HHMC and HTPH areas. The result represented the presentation of sensitive species while tolerant species are usually considered as small size organisms. Overall, this study confirmed the hypothesis that the contamination levels of small-scale patches is indicated by the condition of macrobenthic communities.