2022 Vol. 41, No. 12

2022, 41(12)
2022, 41(12): 1-2.
Hatschek’s pit and origin of pituitary gland
Shicui Zhang, Xiaohan Ji
2022, 41(12): 1-6. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2044-y
Pituitary gland, or pituitary for short, is characteristic of all vertebrates. As a “master gland” controlling a multitude of important functions in the body, its evolutionary origin has been an object of investigations of evolutionary biology for two centuries. Previous morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies suggested the homology of the Hatschek’s pit of amphioxus and vertebrate pituitary. Developmental genetics study showed that the development of Hatschek’s pit and vertebrate pituitary is both subject to regulation by the common genes such as Pit1, Lhx3 and BMP3b. Our recent studies demonstrated that the Hatschek’s pit is able to secrete growth hormone (GH)-like hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-like hormone that both play functions similar to vertebrate GH and TSH. We thus think that the emergence of Hatschek’s pit represents one of important events during endocrine network evolution, which laid a foundation for the subsequent formation of a hypothalamic-pituitary system in vertebrates.
The status of research and utilisation on the subtidal kelp along the Chilean coast: A literature review
Simona Laukaityte, Rodrigo Riera
2022, 41(12): 7-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2052-y
The most important marine coastal ecosystem in the Chilean coast are kelp forests. This review is based on ecological studies regarding different aspects of subtidal kelp ecosystems along the Chilean coast. It highlights the most interesting findings in (1) biology of subtidal kelp in Chile, with particular reference to (2) habitats formed by kelp, and considered the successful examples and promising results in the (3) kelp as an industrial resource (Biotechnological approach of kelps and aquaculture). The impact caused by (4) El Niño-Southern Oscillation is discussed as an important climatic event that could help to forecast the future of the kelp ecosystem. In addition, this literature review outlines the knowledge gaps on subtidal kelp along the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile, so that research can be strengthened in the future.
Articles$Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Sea level rise along China coast in the last 60 years
Hui Wang, Wenshan Li, Wenxi Xiang
2022, 41(12): 18-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2066-5
Based on long-term tide gauge observations in the last 60 years, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of sea level change along the coast of China are analyzed. The results indicate that the sea level along the coast of China has been rising at an increasing rate, with an estimated acceleration of 0.07 mm/a2. The rise rates were 2.4 mm/a, 3.4 mm/a and 3.9 mm/a during 1960–2020, 1980–2020 and 1993–2020, respectively. In the last 40 years, the coastal sea level has risen fastest in the South China Sea and slowest in the Yellow Sea. Seasonal sea levels all show an upward trend but rise faster in winter and spring and slower in autumn. Sea level change along the coast of China has significant periodic oscillations of quasi-2 a, 4 a, 7 a, 11 a, quasi-19 a and 30–50 a, among which the 2–3 a, 11 a, and 30–50 a signals are most remarkable, and the amplitude is approximately 1–2 cm. The coastal sea level in the most recent decade reached its highest value in the last 60 years. The decadal sea level from 2010 to 2019 was approximately 133 mm higher than the average of 1960–1969. Empirical orthogonal function analysis indicates that China’s coastal sea level has been changing in a north-south anti-phase pattern, with Pingtan and Fujian as the demarcation areas. This difference was especially obvious during 1980–1983, 1995–1997 and 2011–2013. The coastal sea level was the highest in 2016, and this extreme sea level event was analyzed to be related mainly to the anomalous wind field and ENSO.
Tsunami hazard and mitigation analysis for bathing beaches in China based on numerical simulations
Jingming Hou, Wei Lu, Tingting Fan, Peitao Wang
2022, 41(12): 27-37. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2027-z
Bathing beaches are usually the first to suffer disasters when tsunamis occur, owing to their proximity to the sea. Several large seismic fault zones are located off the coast of China. The impact of each tsunami scenario on Chinese bathing beaches is different. In this study, numerical models of the worst tsunami scenarios associated with seismic fault zones were considered to assess the tsunami hazard of bathing beaches in China. Numerical results show that tsunami waves from the Pacific Ocean could affect the East China Sea coast through gaps between the Ryukyu Islands. The Zhejiang and Shanghai coasts would be threatened by a tsunami from Ryukyu Trench, and the coasts of Hainan and Guangdong provinces would be threatened by a tsunami from the Manila Trench. The tsunami hazard associated with the Philippine Trench scenario needs particular attention. Owing to China’s offshore topography, the sequential order of tsunami arrival times to coastal provinces in several tsunami scenarios is almost the same. According to the tsunami hazard analysis results, Yalongwan Beach and eight other bathing beaches are at the highest hazard level. A high-resolution numerical calculation model was established to analyze the tsunami physical characteristics for the high-risk bathing beaches. To explore mitigating effects of a tsunami disaster, this study simulated tsunami propagation with the addition of seawalls. The experimental results show that the tsunami prevention seawalls constructed in an appropriate shallow water location have some effect on reducing tsunami hazard. Seawalls separated by a certain distance work even better. The analysis results can provide a scientific reference for subsequent preventive measures such as facility construction and evacuation.
Articles$Marine Geology
Detailed seafloor geomorphology of the western region of the North Yellow Sea, China: The result of Holocene erosional and depositional processes sculpting the offshore continental shelf
Xiaoyu Liu, Yilan Chen, Chenguang Liu, Qiuhua Tang, Yanhong Wang, Shan Gao
2022, 41(12): 38-47. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2060-y
High-resolution multi-beam/single-beam bathymetric data and seismic profiling data from the latest surveys are used to map and interpret the detailed seafloor geomorphology of the western region of the North Yellow Sea (NYS), China. The mapping area covers 156 410 km2, and incorporates a flat shelf plain, subaqueous accumulation shoals, tidal scouring troughs, and tidal sand ridge groups. Offshore areas with water depths less than 50 m in the western region of the NYS are mainly covered by thick, loose sediments, forming wide spread accumulation geomorphological features; these include the Liaodong Peninsula subaqueous accumulation system containing shoals and rugged scouring troughs, and the large mud wedge of the Shandong Peninsula. In the central part of the NYS, there is a relatively flat residual shelf plain with coarser sediment deposits. This flat shelf plain has a water depth larger than 50 m and a thin layer of sediment, on which there is a large pockmark field caused by seafloor seepage. These geomorphological structures indicate that modern sedimentary processes are the main driving force controlling the sculpture of the current seafloor surface landform. Extensive strong tidal current systems and abundant sediment sources provide the critical external forces and essential conditions for the formation of seafloor geomorphology. The tectonic basement controls the macroscopic morphological shape of the NYS, but is reflected very little in the seafloor geomorphic elements. Our results provide a detailed seafloor geomorphological map of the western region of the NYS, an area that has not previously mapped and also provide a scientific framework for further research into offshore seafloor geomorphology, shelf sedimentary processes, and submarine engineering construction in this region.
Articles$Marine Biology
Scleractinian coral communities of Hormuz Island in the Persian Gulf
Yamin Pouryousef, Jafar Seyfabadi, Hamid Rezai, Alireza Mahvari, Mohammad Ali Jafari
2022, 41(12): 48-57. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2048-7
The abundance and health of scleractinian coral communities of Hormuz Island were investigated. For this purpose, we employed 20 m line intercept transects—12 in the intertidal zone and 15 subtidally to evaluate coral cover and community composition. The estimated dead coral coverage was 6.21%±0.81%, while live coral coverage was 16.93%±1.81%, considered as very poor. Totally, 12 genera were recorded, of which Porites with 11.9%±1.4% live cover was the dominant, while Goniopora had the least cover (0.07%±0.08%). Based on Mann-Whitney U-test, live coral coverage, dead coral coverage, algal coverage, cover of other benthic organisms and abiotic components showed significant univariate differences between zones (p<0.05). The Spearman correlation test between the abundance of biotic and abiotic components indicated significant negative correlation of live coral and sand with zoantharian and significant positive correlation of algae and other benthic organisms with rubble. The reef health indices used for the corals indicated that, in general, the environmental conditions were not suitable, which could be attributed to both natural and anthropogenic factors, the most important of which was zoantharian’ overgrowth on the scleractinian corals in this region.
Construction and analysis of a coral reef trophic network for Qilianyu Islands, Xisha Islands
Xiaofan Hong, Zuozhi Chen, Jun Zhang, Yan’e Jiang, Yuyan Gong, Yancong Cai, Yutao Yang
2022, 41(12): 58-72. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2047-8
Qilianyu Islands coral reefs (QICR), located in the northeastern part of the South China Sea, has been affected by human activities and natural disturbance. To characterize the trophic structure, ecosystem properties and keystone species of this region, a food-web model for the QICR is developed using methods involving a mass-balance approach with Ecopath with Ecosim software. Trophic levels range from 1.00 for detritus and primary producers to 3.80 for chondrichthyes. The mean trophic transfer efficiency for the entire ecosystem is 13.15%, with 55% of total energy flow originating from primary producers. A mixed trophic impact analysis indicates that coral strongly impacts most components of this ecosystem. A comparison of our QICR model with that for other coral reef ecosystems suggests that the QICR ecosystem is immature and/or is degraded.
Genetic parameters estimation for growth traits in cultured tiger pufferfish (fugu), Takifugu rubripes
Xin’an Wang, Aijun Ma, Zhifeng Liu, Zhibin Sun, Liguang Zhu, Haowen Chang
2022, 41(12): 73-79. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2058-5
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of the growth performance of Takifugu rubripes. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for body weight (BW), body length (BL), total length (TL), chest measurement (CM) and trunk length (TKL) of T. rubripes from measurements of progeny at 6 months and 12 months. The results showed that the heritability was 0.37 for BW6, 0.19 for BL6, 0.35 for TL6, 0.29 for CM6, 0.26 for TKL6, 0.36 for BW12, 0.26 for BL12, 0.25 for TL12, 0.31 for CM12 and 0.15 for TKL12. The range of genetic correlations estimated at 6 months was 0.025–0.725 and −0.002–0.706 at 12 months. The results indicated that genetic improvement for faster growth rate or increased body weight in cultured T. rubripes was effective. Based on selection theory, the selection strategy for traits with medium heritability is flexible. Considering that these growth traits do not reach the high level of heritability, family selection should be expected. Given positive genetic correlations among BW, BL, TL, CM, and TKL at 6 months, the five traits could be improved simultaneously through selective breeding. As there was high genetic correlation only between BW12, BL12 and TL12, and negative correlations between TKL12 and BL12 as well as between CM12 and TL12, and only BW, BL and TL at 12 months could be improved simultaneously.
Long-term and monthly changes in abundance, size composition and spatial distribution of the mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in the Bohai Sea
Qiang Wu, Qingpeng Han, Yue Jin, Tao Yang, Zhongyi Li, Xiujuan Shan, Xianshi Jin
2022, 41(12): 80-86. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2057-6
With the decline in fish resources worldwide, the ecological dominance and economic importance of crustaceans have obviously increased. Among crustacean species, mantis shrimps are increasingly dominant in many coastal waters of the world. In China, Oratosquilla oratoria is the most widely distributed and productive species of mantis shrimp, and its relative resource density is the highest in the Bohai Sea. In this study, we analysed the long-term and monthly population characteristics of O. oratoria in the Bohai Sea, including its relative resource density, body size and spatial distribution. The results showed that the relative resource density of O. oratoria in the Bohai Sea increased from 3.59 kg/h in 1982 to 14.48 kg/h in 2018, and the percentage of this species that serves as a fishery resource increased from 4.22% in 1982 to 35.27% in 2018, based on the mean relative resource density in May and August. The relative resource density of O. oratoria in the fishing moratorium season from May to August was significantly higher than that in the other months of fishing season, and the relative resource density decreased rapidly after the fishing moratorium ended. The relative resource density of O. oratoria was the highest in summer (August), followed by in autumn (October) and spring (May), and it was the lowest in winter (January). The relative resource density of O. oratoria in the western Bohai Sea was higher than that in the eastern Bohai Sea. The mean body weight of O. oratoria in the Bohai Sea decreased from 21.95 g in 1982 to 14.34 g in 2018, based on the mean body weight in May and August. The body size of O. oratoria in the fishing moratorium season was significantly higher than that in the fishing season, and the body size decreased rapidly after the fishing moratorium ended. Overall, in the context of declining resources of most fishery species, the relative resource density of O. oratoria increased due to its hardiness and adaptability, and its body size decreased under intensive fishing over the past 30 years. The fishing moratorium system had a great influence on the population dynamics of O. oratoria in terms of the relative resource density and body size in the Bohai Sea.
Spatial and diel variations of the prokaryotic community in the Phaeocystis globosa blooms area of Beibu Gulf, China
Cheng He, Sha Xu, Shuqun Song, Caiwen Li
2022, 41(12): 87-97. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-1984-6
While prokaryotes play key roles in nutrient cycling and energy flow during Phaeocystis globosa blooms, the information on the spatial and diel temporal distribution of the prokaryotic community during Phaeocystis blooms remains scarce. In January 2019, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to explore the spatial and diel variations of particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) prokaryotic communities during the blooming phase of P. globosa in Beibu Gulf, Guangxi, China. The results suggested a significant spatial variation pattern in the horizontal distribution of prokaryotic communities, while there was no significant difference in the vertical direction. Both spatial distance and environmental variables shaped the horizontal distribution of the prokaryotic community structure, while environmental variables, particularly the abundance of P. globosa colony and Chl a, showed more significant influence and were closely related to the structure and variation of the prokaryotic community. Strong vertical mixing of the water column disrupted the vertical structure heterogeneity of the prokaryotic community in winter. There were significant differences in the diel samples of PA prokaryotic communities, but not in the FL prokaryotic communities. Nitrate, ammonium and the abundance of P. globosa colony were the key environmental variables impacting the diel variations of prokaryotic communities over the sampling period. The present study provided valuable information to depict the spatial-temporal variations of the microbial community and its association with environmental parameters during P. globosa bloom in the tropical gulf.
In situ cultivation of deep-sea water with bicarbonate fueled a different microbial community
Yong Wang, Jun Li, Zhanfei Wei, Qingmei Li, Yingli Zhou, Wenli Li, Jun Chen, Suixue Wang, Yongzhi Xin, Aiqun Zhang
2022, 41(12): 98-104. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1959-z
Some deep-sea microbes may incorporate inorganic carbon to reduce CO2 emission to upper layer and atmosphere. How the microbial inhabitants can be affected under addition of bicarbonate has not been studied using in situ fixed and lysed samples. In this study, we cultivated 40 L natural bottom water at ~1 000 m depth with a final concentration of 0.1 mmol/L bicarbonate for 40 min and applied multiple in situ nucleic acids collection (MISNAC) apparatus for nucleic acids extraction from the cultivation. Our classification result of the cultivation sample showed a distinct microbial community structure, compared with the samples obtained by Niskin bottle and six working units of MISNAC. Except for notable enrichment of Alteromonas, we detected prevalence of Asprobacter, Ilumatobacter and Saccharimonadales in the cultivation. Deep-sea lineages of Euryarchaeota, SAR406, SAR202 and SAR324 were almost completely absent from the cultivation and Niskin samples. This study revealed the dominant microbes affected by bicarbonate addition and Niskin sampling, which suggested rapid responses of deep-sea microbes to the environmental changes.
Applying a fish expert system for ranking the biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus in the Maowei Sea, China
Ronghui Zheng, Chao Fang, Fukun Hong, Weiming Kuang, Yulu Jiang, Jincan Chen, Yusheng Zhang, Jun Bo
2022, 41(12): 105-114. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2033-1
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution, particularly in coastal environments, is a global concern. In this study, the biomonitoring and ranking effects of PAHs in the rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus were determined in the Maowei Sea, China. The results showed that the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs detected in the surface seawater were moderate compared with those in other coastal areas worldwide, and the possible sources were rapid industrialization and urbanization combined with atmospheric deposition and runoff. Nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) suggested significant differences in the hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities and phenanthrene-derived metabolites in bile between the port area and the oyster farming area. The fish expert system (FES) was applied to evaluate the biological effects of PAHs on fish. The FES data demonstrated that the biological effect levels of Site S1 (level III, medium stress) were higher than those of the other sampling sites (level II, low stress).
Morphological and histological changes in the brains of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with gonadal development
Chunyan Zhao, Liang Chi, Yongshuang Xiao, Bing Li, Yunliang Lu, Yanting Cui, Wenqi Wang, Jun Li
2022, 41(12): 115-122. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2041-1
The brain plays a critical role in controlling reproduction through the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in vertebrates. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) has become an economically important marine fish in Europe and North China. Previous research investigating turbot reproduction has focused on the role of the HPG axis in regulating egg and sperm production. However, the morphology and histology of the organs in the HPG axis have not been studied. In this study, we investigated the morphology and histology of brains in female and male turbot at different stages of gonadal development. The results showed that the brains of both female and male turbot were composed of seven parts that are typical of advanced teleosts: the telencephalon, diencephalon, cerebellum, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, myelencephalon, and olfactory bulbs. The telencephalon was well-developed and contained five distinct lobes, with the contiguous diencephalon at the caudal portion. The torus longitudinales and rostral torus semicircularis of the mesencephalon flattened along the dorsal surface, and the rostral corpus cerebellum was located in the dorsal portion. The actual total brain volume in mature males was significantly greater (p<0.05) than that of females with gonadal development. Notably, the pituitary volume in male turbot significantly increased (p<0.05) from immature to mature stage, but this difference did not occur in females. The data together illustrate a distinct sex difference in the turbot brain during gonadal development, providing insight into their HPG axes.
Increased light availability enhances tolerance against ocean acidification-related stress in the calcifying macroalga Halimeda opuntia
Zhangliang Wei, Yating Zhang, Fangfang Yang, Lijuan Long
2022, 41(12): 123-132. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2037-x
Although the adverse impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine calcifiers have been investigated extensively, the anti-stress capabilities regulated by increased light availability are unclear. Herein, the interactive effects of three light levels (30 μmol photons/(m2·s), 150 μmol photons/(m2·s), and 240 μmol photons/(m2·s) combined with two pCO2 concentrations (400 ppmv and 1400 ppmv) on the physiological acclimation of the calcifying macroalga Halimeda opuntia were investigated using a pCO2-light coupling experiment. The OA negatively influenced algal growth, calcification, photosynthesis, and other physiological performances in H. opuntia. The relative growth rate under elevated pCO2 conditions significantly declined by 13.14%−41.29%, whereas net calcification rates decreased by nearly three-fold under OA conditions. Notably, increased light availability enhanced stress resistance through the accumulation of soluble organic molecules, especially soluble carbohydrate, soluble protein, and free amino acids, and in combination with metabolic enzyme-driven activities, OA stress was alleviated. The carotenoid content under low light conditions increased markedly, and the rapid light curve of the relative electron transport rate was enhanced significantly by increasing light intensities, indicating that this new organization of the photosynthetic machinery in H. opuntia accommodated light variations and elevated pCO2 conditions. Thus, the enhanced metabolic performance of the calcifying macroalga H. opuntia mitigated OA-related stress.
Chemical identification, antioxidant, cholinesterase inhibitory, and cytotoxic properties of fucoidan extracted from Persian Gulf Sargassum angustifolium
Arghavan Hosseinpouri, Mehdi Mohammadi, Elham Ehsandoost, Paria Sharafi-Badr, Narges Obeidi
2022, 41(12): 133-141. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1961-5
Marine macroalgal sulfated fucose-containing polysaccharides, like fucoidan, have drawn significant attention due to their biotechnological potentials, such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-cholinesterase activities. The fucoidan derived from brown macroalgae Sargassum angustifolium species (FSA) was investigated for its cytotoxic effects and alterations in cell proliferation, and cell cycle-related gene expression in the present study occurred on NB4 cell line. The results showed that FSA would induce p53, p21, pro-apoptotic genes and increase expression of the p15 gene as a cell arrest marker. Also, FSA inhibited the anti-apoptotic effect of the Bcl-2 gene and decreased dnmt-1 gene expression. FSA significantly exhibited potent 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (p<0.05) with an IC50 value of 0.157 mg/mL and showed moderate anti-acetylcholinesterase activity with an IC50 value of 1.20 μg/mL. These results indicated the potential of FSA for the development of therapeutic or preventive agents of cancer and Alzheimer’s disease mainly through cytotoxic effect and AChE (acetylcholinesterase) inhibition as well as additional antioxidant capacities.
Phytoplankton diversity in a tropical bay, North Borneo, Malaysia as revealed by light microscopy and Next-Generation Sequencing
Brian Wei Khong Chong, Sandric Chee Yew Leong, Victor S. Kuwahara, Teruaki Yoshida
2022, 41(12): 142-151. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2036-y
Assessments of phytoplankton diversity in Sabah waters, North Borneo, have primarily relied on morphology-based identification, which has inherent biases and can be time-consuming. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has been shown to be capable of overcoming several limitations of morphology-based methods. Samples were collected from the Sepanggar Bay over the course of the year 2018 in different monsoon seasons. Morphology-based identification and NGS sequencing of the V8–V9 region of the 18S LSU rDNA were used to investigate the diversity of the phytoplankton community. Microscopy and NGS showed complementary results with more diatom taxa detected by microscopy whereas NGS detected smaller and rarer taxa. The harmful algal genera in the study site comprised of Skeletonema, Margalefidinium, Pyrodinium, Takayama, and Alexandrium as detected by NGS. This study showed that that an integrative approach of both morphological and molecular techniques could provide more comprehensive information about the phytoplankton community as the approach captured quantitative variability as well as the diversity of phytoplankton species.
Research Note
First record of Odontaster penicillatus populations (Philippi, 1870) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions, Chile (Southeast Pacific)
Leonardo Campos, Fernando Berrios, Brenda B. Hermosillo-Núñez, Marco Ortiz
2022, 41(12): 152-155. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1957-1
We report for the first time the presence of local populations of the starfish Odontaster penicillatus in the regions of Atacama and Antofagasta, Chile. This finding indicates an extension of the distribution limit of 500 km with respect to the last observation made in 2007 in Isla Grande de Atacama. A total of 121 specimens of O. penicillatus were recorded at depths of between 8 m and 24 m. They were associated with rocky substrate and with different species of barnacles, sponges and bryozoans. The presence of O. penicillatus expands the knowledge of the benthic biodiversity of the region, and the development of studies on its ecological importance will be promoted.