2022 Vol. 41, No. 8

2022, 41(8)
2022, 41(8)
Cover Story
Oceanic internal waves generated by the Tongan volcano eruption
Xudong Zhang, Xiaofeng Li
2022, 41(8): 1-4. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2056-7
Articles$Marine Chemistry
Contrasting behaviors of 210Po, 210Pb and 234Th in the East China Sea during a severe red tide: Enhanced scavenging and promoted fractionation
Qiangqiang Zhong, Linwei Li, Viena Puigcorbé, Dekun Huang, Tao Yu, Jinzhou Du
2022, 41(8): 5-21. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1958-0
210Po, 210Pb, and 234Th were determined in water columns of the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate their biogeochemical behaviors during a severe red tide event. Dissolved 210Po, 210Pb, and 234Th accounted for large fractions of the total phases. The abnormally high concentrations of dissolved 210Pb were observed. Partition behaviors of these radionuclides were influenced by particle content effect and particle composition based on distribution coefficient (Kd) vs. total suspended matter (TSM) content and Kd vs. ratios of particulate organic carbon and total suspended matter contents (POC/TSM content ratios). The peaks of mass specific activities of 210Po, 210Pb, and 234Th indicated that degraded particles could have an intensified enrichment ability for radionuclides compared with the surficial suspended matters. Fractionation factor of 210Po and 210Pb (FPo/Pb) (>1) and fractionation factor of 210Po and 234Th (FPo/Th) (>1) were much higher at algal blooming regions than that at non-blooming stations, indicating that algal blooms promoted the fractionation of 210Po against 210Pb and 234Th, and proving that 210Po exhibited a stronger affinity for biogenic particles than 210Pb and 234Th when POC content increased in the sea. POC/210Po, POC/210Pb and POC/234Th ratios (content/activity ratios) sharply decreased with depth in both algal bloom and non-bloom stations. The outbreak of algal bloom promoted the complexity of suspended particles and increased the variability of POC/tracer ratios (content/activity ratios) in the different depth of the shallow seas. More considerations should be taken to the difficulty of the selection of export interface and the suitable tracers when algal blooming occurs.
Articles$Marine Geology
Last glacial terrestrial vegetation record of leaf wax n-alkanols in the northern South China Sea: Contrast to scenarios from long-chain n-alkanes
Shengyi Mao, Guodong Jia, Xiaowei Zhu, Nengyou Wu, Daidai Wu, Hongxiang Guan, Lihua Liu
2022, 41(8): 22-30. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1917-9
Long-chain n-alkanols and n-alkanes in core sediments from the northern South China Sea (SCS) were measured to make a comparison during terrestrial vegetation reconstruction from ~42 ka to ~7 ka. The results showed that terrestrial vegetation record from long-chain n-alkanes matched well with previous studies in nearby cores, showing that more C4 plants developed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and C3 plants dominated in the interglacial period. However, these scenarios were not revealed by terrestrial vegetation reconstruction using long-chain n-alkanols, which showed C3 plant expansion during the LGM. The discrepancy during the interglacial period could be attributed to the aerobic degradation of functionalized long-chain n-alkanols in the oxygen-rich bottom water, resulting in poor preservation of terrestrial vegetation signals. On the other hand, the different advantages of functionalized n-alkanols and non-functional n-alkanes to record local and distal vegetation signals, respectively, may offer a potential explanation for the contradiction during the LGM when the SCS was characterized by low-oxygen deep water. Nevertheless, large variations on n-alkyl lipid compositions in C3/C4 plants could play a part in modulating sedimentary long-chain n-alkanols and n-alkanes toward different vegetation signals, thereby suggesting that caution must be taken in respect to the terrestrial vegetation reconstruction using long-chain n-alkanes and long-chain n-alkanols.
Articles$Marine Biology
Response of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the Yellow Sea over the past 400 a
Haoyu Li, Qisheng Tang, Yao Sun
2022, 41(8): 31-40. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1914-z
Quantitative identification of long-term changes in the abundance of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea is particularly important for understanding evolutionary processes of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Unfortunately, the driving mechanisms of climate variability on the anchovy are still unclear due to the lack of long-term observational data. In this study, we used the fish scale deposition rate in the central Yellow Sea to reconstruct the time series of the anchovy stock over the past 400 a. On this basis, we further explored the impacts of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on the anchovy. Our results show that the anchovy stock is positively correlated with the PDO on a decadal time scale. In addition, anchovy abundance was relatively high during 1620–1860 AD (the Little Ice Age, LIA), though in a state of constant fluctuation; anchovy abundance maintained at a relatively low level after ~1860 AD. In particular, followed by overfishing since the 1980s, the anchovy stock has declined sharply. Based on these findings, we infer that fluctuations of the anchovy stock may be regulated by basin-scale “atmosphere–ocean” interactions. Nevertheless, the role of overfishing should not be ignored.
Stock assessment for Atlantic yellowfin tuna based on extended surplus production model considering life history
Zhipan Tian, Fei Wang, Siquan Tian, Qiuyun Ma
2022, 41(8): 41-51. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1924-x
The modern fishery stock assessment could be conducted by various models, such as Stock Synthesis model with high data requirement and complicated model structure, and the basic surplus production model, which fails to incorporate individual growth, maturity, and fishery selectivity, etc. In this study, the Just Another Bayesian Biomass Assessment (JABBA) Select which is relatively balanced between complex and simple models, was used to conduct stock assessment for yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Atlantic Ocean. Its population dynamics was evaluated, considering the influence of selectivity patterns and different catch per unit effort (CPUE) indices on the stock assessment results. The model with three joint longline standardized CPUE indices and logistic selectivity pattern performed well, without significant retrospective pattern. The results indicated that the stock is not overfished and not subject to overfishing in 2018. Sensitivity analyses indicated that stock assessment results are robust to natural mortality but sensitive to steepness of the stock-recruitment relationship and fishing selectivity. High steepness was revealed to be more appropriate for this stock, while the fishing selectivity has greater influence to the assessment results than life history parameters. Overall, JABBA-Select is suitable for the stock assessment of Atlantic yellowfin tuna with different selectivity patterns, and the assumptions of natural mortality and selectivity pattern should be improved to reduce uncertainties.
Relationships between daily growth of different groups of swordtip squid (Uroteuthis edulis) and environmental variables in the East China Sea
Nan Li, Yan Wang, Zhou Fang, Xinjun Chen, Zhiping Feng
2022, 41(8): 52-61. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1905-0
Swordtip squid (Uroteuthis edulis) is one of the important economical fishing target species in the East China Sea. Uroteuthis edulis is characterized by rapid growth, extensive migration, and long spawning period and sensitive to surrounding environment. In order to assess its stock status, it is necessary to explore its spawning season, growth patterns of different populations and their relationship with the environment in advance. In this paper, based on the samples of U. edulis collected in the East China Sea from September 2017 to March 2018, we explored the relationships between daily growth of statolith microstructure and environmental variables by gradient forest method and generalized additive model. The spawning season of U. edulis was found to be nearly one year, and two dominant season groups were found: the spring group with the peak period of April and the summer group with the peak period of August. Water temperature in the depth of 25 m (Temp_25), sea surface temperature (SST) and zonal velocity were the key environmental variables for the daily growth of April-spawning group. The most suitable environmental conditions for the growth of April-spawning group were water temperature (24−27°C) and velocity (0.1−0.3 m/s). SST, Temp_25 and mixed layer depth were the key environment variables for the daily growth of August-spawning group. The most suitable environmental conditions for the growth of August-spawning group were water temperature (21−28°C) and water depth (0−50 m). Key environmental variables of different groups suggested that early growth was significantly affected by seasonal changes of water temperature, current velocity and prey abundance. This study explored the relationships between early growth and environmental variables and provided the scientific guidance for the management and conservation of U. edulis.
Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of Sesarmidae and its phylogenetic implications
Ying Zhang, Lei Meng, Liming Wei, Bingjian Liu, Liqin Liu, Zhenming Lü, Yang Gao, Li Gong
2022, 41(8): 62-73. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1911-2
Here, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of Parasesarma eumolpe (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Sesarmidae) for the first time. The characteristics of this newly sequenced mitogenome were described and compared with other Sesarmidae species. The 15 646-bp mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and an A-T rich region. All of the PCGs are initiated by the start codon ATN and terminated by the standard TAN codon or an incomplete T. The pairwise Ka/Ks ratio analysis shows that all 13 PCGs are under purifying selection, whereas the ATP8 gene is an outlier, with pairwise comparison values ranging from neutral selection (0.000) to positive selection (1.039). The gene arrangement of P. eumolpe compared with ancestral Decapoda shows the translocation of two tRNAs (tRNA-His and tRNA-Gln), which is identical to other Sesarmidae species. Phylogenetic analyses show that all Sesarmidae species are placed into one group, and the polyphyly of Eriphioidea, Ocypodoidea, and Grapsoidea is well supported. The relationship between gaps in the QIM region and the phylogeny of Sesarmidae is analyzed. It is obvious that both the G5 (the gap between Q and I) and G6 (the gap between I and M) decrease progressively with the evolution process. These results will help to better understand the genomic evolution within Sesarmidae and provide insights into the phylogeny of Brachyura.
Descriptions of four new species of the genus Reticunassa Iredale, 1936 (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) from the northeastern coast of Taiwan Island and the South China Sea
Shuqian Zhang, Suping Zhang, Chih-Yeh Lee
2022, 41(8): 74-77. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1910-3
In the present study, four new species of the genus Reticunassa Iredale, 1936 collected from Chinese waters are described and illustrated. Reticunassa hugokooli sp. nov., Reticunassa jungi sp. nov. and Reticunassa aureolineata sp. nov. were collected from the northeastern coast of Taiwan Island, whereas Reticunassa fuscofasciata sp. nov. was collected from the northeastern coast of Taiwan Island and the South China Sea. The four new species can be distinguished conchologically from other congeners mainly in protoconch, shell shape, sculpture, and coloration. These findings demonstrate that the biodiversity of this group in China might be largely underestimated.
Biomass accumulation and organic carbon stocks of Kandelia obovata mangrove vegetation under different simulated sea levels
Jiahui Chen, Min Gao, Guangcheng Chen, Heng Zhu, Yong Ye
2022, 41(8): 78-86. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1891-2
Mangrove forests are vulnerably threatened by sea level rise (SLR). Vegetation organic carbon (OC) stocks are important for mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle. It is critical to understand how SLR affects vegetation OC stocks for evaluating mangrove blue carbon budget and global climate change. In this study, biomass accumulation and OC stocks of mangrove vegetation were compared among three 10 year-old Kandelia obovata (a common species in China) mangrove forests under three intertidal elevations through species-specific allometric equations. This study simulated mangrove forests with SLR values of 0 cm, 40 cm and 80 cm, respectively, representing for the current, future ~100 a and future ~200 a SLR of mangrove forests along the Jiulong River Estuary, China. SLR directly decreased mangrove individual density and inhibited the growth of mangrove vegetation. The total vegetation biomasses were (12.86±0.95) kg/m2, (7.97±0.90) kg/m2 and (3.89±0.63) kg/m2 at Sites SLR 0 cm, SLR 40 cm and SLR 80 cm, respectively. The total vegetation OC stock decreased by approximately 3.85 kg/m2 (in terms of C) from Site SLR 0 cm to Site SLR 80 cm. Significantly lower vegetation biomass and OC stock of various components (stem, branch, leaf and root) were found at Site SLR 80 cm. Annual increments of vegetation biomass and OC stock also decreased with SLR increase. Moreover, significant lower sedimentation rate was found at Site SLR 80 cm. These indicated that SLR will decrease mangrove vegetation biomass and OC stock, which may reduce global blue carbon sink by mangroves, exacerbate global warming and give positive feedback to SLR.
Molecular insights into the circadian clock in marine diatoms
Shufeng Zhang, Yue Wu, Lin Lin, Dazhi Wang
2022, 41(8): 87-98. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1962-4
The circadian clock is a fundamental endogenous mechanism of adaptation that coordinates the physiology and behavior of most organisms with diel variations in the external environment to maintain temporal homeostasis. Diatoms are the major primary producers in the ocean. However, little is known about the circadian clock in marine diatoms compared with other organisms. Here, we investigated circadian clock genes, their expression patterns, and responses to environmental stimuli such as light, nitrogen and phosphorus in two marine diatoms, Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using a combination of qRT-PCR and bioinformatic analysis. We identified 17 and 18 circadian clock genes in P. tricornutum and S. costatum, respectively. Despite significant evolutionary differences, these genes were similar to those of the higher plant Arabidopsis. We also established a molecular model for the marine diatom circadian clock comprising an input pathway, core oscillator, output pathway, and valve effector. Notably, the expression patterns of core clock genes (circadian clock associated 1 (CCA1), late elongated hypocotyl (LHY) and timing of cab 1 (TOC1)) in both species differed from those of terrestrial plants. Furthermore, the expression of these genes was influenced by variations in ambient light, nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Although marine diatoms and higher plants share common circadian clock components, their clock genes have diverged throughout evolution, likely as a result of adapting to contrasting environments.
Effects of daily nitrogen and phosphorus input on planktonic community metabolism in a semi-enclosed bay by mesocosm experiment
Chenhui Xiang, Yao Li, Zhixin Ke, Gang Li, Yadong Huang, Xinying Su, Liangmin Huang, Xinyu Song
2022, 41(8): 99-110. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-1986-4
Planktonic metabolism plays an important role in affecting the energy transportation and carbon cycle of the marine ecosystem. However, its regulation mechanism remains unclear under the continuously exogenous nutrient inputs in nearshore waters. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted in a semi-enclosed bay, the Daya Bay, to explore the responses of plankton metabolic balance and community structure to a concentration gradient of daily nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. The results showed that nutrient enrichments promoted phytoplankton biomass, total primary production, and community respiration, and the promoting effect enhanced alongwith the increase of nutrient concentration. However, the net community production fluctuated more violently between autotrophic and heterotrophic with the increase of nutrient inputs and tended to be more heterotrophic from the 5th day to the 10th day of the experiment. In addition, the daily flux of nitrogen and phosphorus, 2 μmol/(L·d) and 0.066 μmol/(L·d), respectively, could be regarded as a potential threshold for ecosystem stability and health, since most of the ecological characteristics related to plankton structure and function have undergone significant changes when the nutrient level is higher than that. In the nearshore enclosed or semi-enclosed waters, nutrient from continuous terrigenous input is likely to be concentrated and exceed this level, indicating the ecological risks due to the metabolic unbalance and the deterioration of plankton community structure.
Top-down control on major groups of global marine diazotrophs
Hua Wang, Ya-Wei Luo
2022, 41(8): 111-119. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1956-2
Dinitrogen (N2) fixed by a group of prokaryotes (diazotrophs) is the dominant process adding bioavailable nitrogen into the ocean. Although it has been intensively studied how N2 fixation is controlled by resources (bottom-up factors), it is unclear whether the grazing (top-down control) effectively impacts growth and distribution of different diazotroph groups. In this study, we evaluate this question by conducting log-log regression of diazotroph biomass onto corresponding N2 fixation rates in the global ocean. The slope of the regression for Trichodesmium is ~0.8, indicating that a small portion of the increase in N2 fixation does not accumulate as its biomass. This leads to a conclusion that Trichodesmium is under a substantial top-down control, although bottom-up control still dominates. We also analyze the residuals of the regression in the North Atlantic, concluding that free trichomes of Trichodesmium are subject to stronger top-down control than its colonies. The weak correlation between the biomass and N2 fixation of unicellular cyanobacterial diazotrophs indicates that the degree of top-down control on this type of diazotrophs varies greatly. The analyses obtain unrealistic results for diatom-diazotroph assemblages due to complicated nitrogen sources of these symbioses. Our study reveals the variability of top-down control among different diazotroph groups across time and space, suggesting its importance in improving our understandings of ecology of diazotrophs and predictions of N2 fixation in biogeochemical models. Measurements of size-specific N2 fixation rates and growth rates of different diazotroph groups can be useful to more reliably analyze the top-down control on these key organisms in the global ocean.
Particle size shapes the prokaryotic microbial communities in mangrove sediments: A case study of Sanya, China
Wu Qu, Michael Vicent Shija, Jie Wu, Min Jin, Jianxin Wang, Runying Zeng, Zhuhua Chan
2022, 41(8): 120-128. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1915-y
The prokaryotic microbial communities in the sediments play crucial roles in the ecological functions of mangrove ecosystems. Therefore, the environmental factors that affect the structures of these prokaryotic microbial communities could indirectly participate in the regulation of mangrove functions, which is of great value for mangrove studies. The particle size (PS) of soils is recently demonstrated as a key environmental factor for shaping the microbial communities; however, this hypothesis has rarely been tested for mangrove environments. A case study of three tropical mangroves from Sanya, China was performed in this work to assess the influence of PS on the prokaryotic microbial community structures of bacteria, archaea, diazotrophs, and denitrifiers in the sediments. Results showed the variability in the spatial scale and the stability in the temporal scale for the prokaryotic communities, indicating that the tropical mangrove sediments could be a versatile but stable environment. Among the collected environmental factors, PS, salinity, and humidity had the greatest impacts, and PS mostly affected the structures of these prokaryotic communities based on its highest R2 values of canonical correspondence analysis, Mental test, and linear fitting (p≤0.05). Furthermore, PS was positively correlated with the diversity and abundance of diazotrophic communities and negatively correlated with the abundances of methanogenic communities including Methanobacteriaceae, Methanospirillaceae, Methanoregulaceae, and Methanosaetaceae. Former studies show the increasing trend of PS caused by the rise of sea level and the intensification of human activities. Therefore, our findings indicate that PS could be a potential intermediate that links climate change and human activities with the possible ecological function migration of mangroves; meanwhile, the increase of PS could in turn release the stress of these environmental changes by increasing the abundance and diversity of the diazotrophic community and decreasing the abundances of methanogens.
Articles$Marine Technology
Determination of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in seawater by isotope dilution automatic solid-phase extraction—ICP-MS
Yuncong Ge, Ruifeng Zhang, Ziyuan Jiang, Zhan Shen, Maojun Yan
2022, 41(8): 129-136. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2016-2
A thorough understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals in the ocean is crucial because of the important role these elements play in regulating metabolism in marine biotas and thus, the climate. However, a precise and accurate analysis of trace metals in seawater is difficult because they are present at extremely low concentrations in a high salt matrix. In this study, we report an analytical method for the preconcentration and separation of six trace metals, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, in seawater using a seaFAST automatic solid-phase extraction device, analysis by a triple quadrupole collision/reaction technique with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and quantification by the isotope dilution technique. A small volume (10 mL) of seawater sample was mixed with a multi-element isotope spike and subjected to seaFAST procedures. The preconcentrate solution was then analyzed using the optimized collision/reaction cell mode of ICP-MS, with NH3 gas for Fe and Cd with a flow rate of 0.22 mL/min and He for Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb with a flow rate of 4.0 mL/min. The procedure blanks were 130 pmol/L, 3.0 pmol/L, 6.8 pmol/L, 37 pmol/L, 0.29 pmol/L and 0.42 pmol/L, for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively. The method was validated using five reference materials (SLRs-6, SLEW-3, CASS-6, NASS-7 and GEOTRACE-GSC), and our results were consistent with the consensus values. The method was further validated by measuring full-water-column seawater samples from the subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean, and our results demonstrated good oceanic consistency.