Yang Yanzhao, Wei Zexun, Wang Guanlin, Lian Zhan, Wang Liwei. The Island Rule with lateral and bottom friction[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2019, 38(4): 146-153. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1394-6
Citation: Yang Yanzhao, Wei Zexun, Wang Guanlin, Lian Zhan, Wang Liwei. The Island Rule with lateral and bottom friction[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2019, 38(4): 146-153. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1394-6

The Island Rule with lateral and bottom friction

doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1394-6
  • Received Date: 2018-06-06
  • The Island Rule, derived from the Sverdrup theory, is widely used to estimate and analyze water transport through a strait. Previous studies presented single-or multi-island rules with either lateral or bottom friction. In this paper, an analytical model of wind-driven circulation is assumed based on linear dynamics. Considering both lateral and bottom friction, the analytic solutions of the transport streamfunction around the islands are derived and the volume transport through the channel is presented. The results are similar to those of Wajsowicz, but the frictional constants represent different values. The analytic solution shows that the relationship between the lateral frictional and bottom frictional dissipation is complex in terms of the frictional constants. To understand the interaction between the two friction types, lateral and bottom friction values were randomly chosen on a barotropic beta plane. The result shows an approximately linear relationship between the lateral and bottom friction in consisting of the combined frictional constants. We studied the effect of the channel width on the transport through the channel. The results show that the friction enhances the flow under some widths, which is similar to the flow behavior when only the lateral friction is considered. We also compared the transport through the channel at different depths and founded that the deeper the water, the smaller the transport reduction ratio when the horizontal eddy viscosity coefficient and the bottom drag coefficient remained constants. To further present the combined role of lateral frictional and bottom frictional dissipation, we compared our model with the model of Wajsowicz for two islands, where only the lateral or bottom friction were considered, with different channel widths. The results showed that the effect of the lateral friction is greater than the bottom friction when the channel is narrow, especially in the Munk boundary layer thickness. When the channel is much wider than the Munk boundary layer thickness, the role of the bottom friction is greater than that of the lateral friction. The model was applied to the Indonesian throughflow and yielded a reduction of approximately 20% in the transport.
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