Volume 42 Issue 5
May  2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Shuo Chen, Donghui Jiang, Renhai Pu, Yunwen Guan, Xiaochuan Wu, Tianyu Ji, Chuang Liu. Genesis, evolution and reservoir identification of a Neogene submarine channel in the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(5): 57-78. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2071-8
Citation: Shuo Chen, Donghui Jiang, Renhai Pu, Yunwen Guan, Xiaochuan Wu, Tianyu Ji, Chuang Liu. Genesis, evolution and reservoir identification of a Neogene submarine channel in the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(5): 57-78. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2071-8

Genesis, evolution and reservoir identification of a Neogene submarine channel in the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea

doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2071-8
Funds:  The National Natural Science Foundation of China’s Major Project “Research on Geophysical Theories and Methods of Unconventional Oil and Gas Exploration and Development”, Task I: “China’s Tight Oil and Gas Reservoir Geological Characteristics, Classification and Typical Geological Model Establishment” under contract No. 41390451; the Science and Technology Project of Sinopec Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Company under contract No. KJ-2021-7.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: purenhai@126.com
  • Received Date: 2022-01-22
  • Accepted Date: 2022-05-22
  • Available Online: 2023-03-15
  • Publish Date: 2023-05-25
  • A rarely reported middle−late Miocene−Pliocene channel (incised valley fill), the Huaguang Channel (HGC), has been found in the deep-water area of the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin (QDNB). This channel is almost perpendicular to the orientation of another well-known, large, and nearly coeval submarine channel in this area. Based on the interpretation of high-resolution 3D seismic data, this study describes and analyzes the stratigraphy, tectonics, sedimentation, morphology, structure and evolution of HGC by means of well-seismic synthetic calibration, one- and two-dimensional forward modeling, attribute interpretation, tectonic interpretation, and gas detection. The HGC is located on the downthrown side of an earlier activated normal fault and grew northwestward along the fault strike. The channel is part of a slope that extends from the western Huaguang Sag to the eastern Beijiao Uplift. The HGC underwent four developmental stages: the (1) incubation (late Sanya Formation, 20.4–15.5 Ma), (2) embryonic (Meishan Formation, 15.5–10.5 Ma), (3) peak (Huangliu Formation, 10.5–5.5 Ma) and (4) decline (Yinggehai Formation, 5.5–1.9 Ma) stages. The channel sandstones have a provenance from the southern Yongle Uplift and filled the channel via multistage vertical amalgamation and lateral migration. The channel extended 42.5 km in an approximately straight pattern in the peak stage. At 10.5 Ma, sea level fell relative to its lowest level, and three oblique progradation turbidite sand bodies filled the channel from south to north. A channel sandstone isopach map demonstrated a narrow distribution in the early stages and a fan-shaped distribution in the late stage. The formation and evolution of the HGC were controlled mainly by background tectonics, fault strike, relative sea level change, and mass supply from the Yongle Uplift. The HGC sandstone reservoir is near the Huaguangjiao Sag, where hydrocarbons were generated. Channel-bounding faults and underlying faults link the source rock with the reservoir. A regionally extensive mudstone caprock overlies the channel sandstone. Two traps likely containing gas were recognized in a structural high upstream of the channel from seismic attenuation anomalies. The HGC will likely become an important oil and gas accumulation setting in the QDNB deep-water area.
  • loading
  • Allen C R, Gillespie A R, Yuan Han, et al. 1984. Red River and associated faults, Yunnan Province, China: quaternary geology, slip rates, and seismic hazard. GSA Bulletin, 95(6): 686–700. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1984)95<686:rraafy>2.0.co;2
    Amy L A, Peakall J, Talling P J. 2005. Density- and viscosity-stratified gravity currents: insight from laboratory experiments and implications for submarine flow deposits. Sedimentary Geology, 179(1–2): 5–29,
    Anderson K S, Graham S A, Hubbard S M. 2006. Facies, architecture, and origin of a reservoir-scale sand-rich succession within submarine canyon fill: insights from Wagon Caves Rock (Paleocene), Santa Lucia Range, California, U. S. A. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 76(5): 819–838. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2006.066
    Bouma A H. 2007. Key controls on the characteristics of turbidite systems. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 222(1): 9–22,
    Brouwer F G C, Welsh A, Connolly D L, et al. 2008. High frequencies attenuation and low frequency shadows in seismic data caused by gas chimneys, Onshore Ecuador. In: Proceedings of the 70th EAGE Conference and Exhibition Incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2008. Rome: European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers
    Carcione J M, Qadrouh A N, Perroud H, et al. 2018. Seismic attenuation, normal moveout stretch, and low-frequency shadows underlying bottom simulating reflector events. Geophysical Prospecting, 66(5): 857–871. doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12623
    Chen Chih-Sung, Jeng Yih. 2011. Nonlinear data processing method for the signal enhancement of GPR data. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 75(1): 113–123. doi: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2011.06.017
    Chen Hui, Xie Xinong, Van Rooij D, et al. 2014. Depositional characteristics and processes of alongslope currents related to a seamount on the northwestern margin of the Northwest Sub-Basin, South China Sea. Marine Geology, 355: 36–53. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2014.05.008
    Chen Yang, Zhang Jianxin, Huang Can, et al. 2019. Filling evolution characteristics of the axial gravity channel in Huangliu Formation in Yinggehai Basin. Journal of Northeast Petroleum University (in Chinese), 43(6): 23–32, 61
    Clark J D, Pickering K T. 1996. Architectural elements and growth patterns of submarine channels: application to hydrocarbon exploration. AAPG Bulletin, 80(2): 194–220. doi: 10.1306/64ed878c-1724-11d7-8645000102c1865d
    Feng Congjun, Yao Xingzong, Yang Haizhang, et al. 2021. Source-sink System and Sedimentary Model of Progradational Fan Delta Controlled by Restricted Ancient Gully: An Example in the Enping Formation in the Southern Baiyun Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin, Northern South China Sea. Acta Geologica Sinica (English edition), 95(1): 232–247. doi: 10.1111/1755-6724.14627
    Gong Chenglin, Li Dongwei, Qi Kun, et al. 2020. Flow processes and sedimentation in a straight submarine channel on the Qiongdongnan margin, northwestern South China Sea. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 90(10): 1372–1388. doi: 10.2110/jsr.2020.68
    Gong Chenglin, Wang Yingmin, Zhu Weilin, et al. 2011. The central submarine canyon in the Qiongdongnan Basin, northwestern South China Sea: architecture, sequence stratigraphy, and depositional processes. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 28(9): 1690–1702. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.06.005
    Green A N. 2009. Palaeo-drainage, incised valley fills and transgressive systems tract sedimentation of the northern KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf, South Africa, SW Indian Ocean. Marine Geology, 263(1–4): 46–63,
    Green A N, Dladla N, Garlick G L. 2013. Spatial and temporal variations in incised valley systems from the Durban continental shelf, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Marine Geology, 335: 148–161. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2012.11.002
    Hall R, van Hattum M W A, Spakman W. 2008. Impact of India-Asia collision on SE Asia: the record in Borneo. Tectonophysics, 451(1–4): 366–389,
    Hampson G J, Davies S J, Elliott T, et al. 2005. Incised valley fill sandstone bodies in Upper Carboniferous fluvio-deltaic strata: recognition and reservoir characterization of southern North Sea analogues. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series, 5(1): 771–788,
    Haq B U, Hardenbol J, Vail P R. 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science, 235(4793): 1156–1166. doi: 10.1126/science.235.4793.1156
    Harris P T, Whiteway T. 2011. Global distribution of large submarine canyons: geomorphic differences between active and passive continental margins. Marine Geology, 285(1–4): 69–86,
    He Yunlong, Xie Xinong, Kneller B C, et al. 2013. Architecture and controlling factors of canyon fills on the shelf margin in the Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 41: 264–276. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.03.002
    Huang Heting, Huang Baojia, Huang Yiwen, et al. 2017. Condensate origin and hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism of the deepwater giant gas field in western South China Sea: a case study of Lingshui 17–2 gas field in Qiongdongnan Basin. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 44(3): 409–417. doi: 10.1016/S1876-3804(17)30047-2
    Khain V E, Polyakova I D. 2008. Oil and gas potential of continental margins of the Pacific Ocean. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 43(1): 81–92. doi: 10.1134/S0024490208010082
    Lei Chao, Ren Jianye, Pei Jianxiang, et al. 2011. Tectonic framework and multiple episode tectonic evolution in deepwater area of Qiongdongnan Basin, northern continental margin of South China Sea. Earth Science—Journal of China University of Geosciences (in Chinese), 36(1): 151–162. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2011.016
    Li Chao, Chen Guojun, Zhou Qianshan, et al. 2021. Seismic geomorphology of three types of deepwater fans and their relationship with slope morphology: Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 124: 104814. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2020.104814
    Li Xiangquan, Fairweather L, Wu Shiguo, et al. 2013. Morphology, sedimentary features and evolution of a large palaeo submarine canyon in Qiongdongnan basin, northern South China Sea. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 62: 685–696. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.11.019
    Li Chunfeng, Li Jiabiao, Ding Weiwei, et al. 2015. Seismic stratigraphy of the central South China Sea basin and implications for neotectonics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(3): 1377–1399. doi: 10.1002/2014JB011686
    Li Sitian, Lin Changsong, Zhang Qiming, et al. 1999. Episodic rifting of continental marginal basins and tectonic events since 10 Ma in the South China Sea. Chinese Science Bulletin, 44(1): 10–23. doi: 10.1007/bf03182877
    Li Anqi, Yang Xibing, Fan Caiwei, et al. 2020. Sandy debris flow sedimentary characteristics and patterns in the Meishan Formation of northern Lingshui Sag, Qiongdongnan Basin. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1549: 022009. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1549/2/022009
    Li Qianyu, Zhong Guangfa, Tian Jun. 2009. Stratigraphy and sea level changes. In: Wang Pinxian, Li Qianyu, eds. The South China Sea: Paleoceanography and Sedimentology. Dordrecht: Springer, 75–170,
    Liu Xiaofeng, Sun Zhipeng, Liu Xinyu, et al. 2018. Chronostratigraphic framework based on Micro-paleontological data from drilling LS33a in deep water area of northern South China Sea. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica (in Chinese), 36(5): 890–902. doi: 10.14027/j.issn.1000-0550.2018.069
    Lu Hongying, Cheng Bingjie, Shen Zhongmin, et al. 2013. Gas and water reservoir differentiation by time-frequency analysis: a case study in southwest China. Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, 48(4): 439–450. doi: 10.1007/s40328-013-0031-7
    Lu Yintao, Li Wei, Wu Shiguo, et al. 2018. Morphology, architecture, and evolutionary processes of the Zhongjian Canyon between two carbonate platforms, South China Sea. Interpretation, 6(4): SO1–SO15. doi: 10.1190/INT-2017-0222.1
    Lüdmann T, Wong H K. 1999. Neotectonic regime on the passive continental margin of the northern South China Sea. Tectonophysics, 311(1–4): 113–138,
    Mayall M, Jones E, Casey M. 2006. Turbidite channel reservoirs—key elements in facies prediction and effective development. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 23(8): 821–841. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2006.08.001
    McHugh C M G, Damuth J E, Mountain G S. 2002. Cenozoic mass-transport facies and their correlation with relative sea-level change, New Jersey continental margin. Marine Geology, 184(3–4): 295–334,
    Oliveira A, Santos A I, Rodrigues A, et al. 2007. Sedimentary particle distribution and dynamics on the Nazaré canyon system and adjacent shelf (Portugal). Marine Geology, 246(2–4): 105–122,
    Pan Guangchao, Han Guangming, Song Ruiyou, et al. 2012. New seismic facies style of channels in Yinggehai Basin and gas-bearing prediction. Oil Geophysical Prospecting (in Chinese), 47(6): 984–989
    Pu Renhai, Han Qiang, Xu Pengye. 2021. Cases of generalized low-frequency shadows of tight gas reservoir. Interpretation, 9(4): B65–B76. doi: 10.1190/int-2020-0243.1
    Puga-Bernabéu Á, Martín J M, Braga J C. 2008. Sedimentary processes in a submarine canyon excavated into a temperate-carbonate ramp (Granada Basin, southern Spain). Sedimentology, 55(5): 1449–1466. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.00952.x
    Qiu Xuelin, Ye Sanyu, Wu Shimin, et al. 2001. Crustal structure across the Xisha trough, northwestern South China Sea. Tectonophysics, 341(1–4): 179–193,
    Ryseth A, Fjellbirkeland H. 1995. Differentiation of incised valley systems from mobile streams: some examples from the oseberg field, Norwegian North Sea. Norwegian Petroleum Society Special Publications, 5: 51–73. doi: 10.1016/S0928-8937(06)80063-9
    Su Ming, Xie Xinong, Xie Yuhong, et al. 2014. The segmentations and the significances of the Central Canyon System in the Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 79: 552–563. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.12.038
    Sun Zhen, Zhou Di, Zhong Zhihong, et al. 2003. Experimental evidence for the dynamics of the formation of the Yinggehai Basin, NW South China Sea. Tectonophysics, 372(1–2): 41–58,
    Tang Xiaoyin, Hu Shengbiao, Zhang Gongcheng, et al. 2014. Geothermal characteristics and hydrocarbon accumulation of the northern marginal basins, South China Sea. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 57(1): 64–78. doi: 10.1002/cjg2.20084
    Tapponnier P, Peltzer G, Armijo R. 2007. On the mechanics of the collision between India and Asia. Geological Society Special Publication, 19(1): 115–157. doi: 10.1144/GSL.SP.1986.019.01.07
    Tinterri R, Drago M, Consonni A, et al. 2003. Modelling subaqueous bipartite sediment gravity flows on the basis of outcrop constraints: first results. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 20(6–8): 911–933,
    Tsai Ching-Hui, Hsu Shu-Kun, Yeh Yi-Ching, et al. 2004. Crustal thinning of the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. Marine Geophysical Researches, 25(1–2): 63–78,
    Wang Zhenfeng. 2012. Important deepwater hydrocarbon reservoirs: the Central Canyon system in the Qiongdongnan Basin. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica (in Chinese), 30(4): 646–653
    Wang Bin, Lü Fuliang, Li Shuang, et al. 2021. A buried submarine canyon in the northwestern South China Sea: architecture, development processes and implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 40(2): 29–41. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1751-0
    Wang Zhenfeng, Sun Zhipeng, Zhang Yingzhao, et al. 2016. Distribution and hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism of the giant deepwater Central Canyon gas field in Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea. China Petroleum Exploration (in Chinese), 21(4): 54–64
    Wang Weiwei, Wang Dawei, Sun Jin, et al. 2020. Evolution of deepwater turbidite bedforms in the Huaguang channel–lobe transition zone revealed by 3D seismic data in the Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea. Geomorphology, 370: 107412. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107412
    Wu Xiaochuan, Pu Renhai, Xue Huaiyan, et al. 2019. Detection and analysis to gas-bearing of seafloor fans in the Zhuhai Formation of the Jieyang Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin. Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 62(7): 2732–2747
    Wu Shiguo, Yang Zhen, Wang Dawei, et al. 2014. Architecture, development and geological control of the Xisha carbonate platforms, northwestern South China Sea. Marine Geology, 350: 71–83. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2013.12.016
    Wu Shiguo, Yuan Shengqiang, Zhang Gongcheng, et al. 2009. Seismic characteristics of a reef carbonate reservoir and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in deepwater of the Qiongdongnan Basin, northern South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 26(6): 817–823. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.04.008
    Wynn R B, Cronin B T, Peakall J. 2007. Sinuous deep-water channels: genesis, geometry and architecture. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 24(6–9): 341–387,
    Xie Xinong, Müller R D, Li Sitian, et al. 2006. Origin of anomalous subsidence along the northern South China Sea margin and its relationship to dynamic topography. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 23(7): 745–765. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2006.03.004
    Xie Xinong, Müller R D, Ren Jianye, et al. 2008. Stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the continental slope system in offshore Hainan, northern South China Sea. Marine Geology, 247(3–4): 129–144,
    Yang Xibing, Fu Heng, He Xiaohu, et al. 2019. Cenozoic sedimentary systems and their tectonic-sedimentary evolution in southern uplift zone of the Qiongdongnan Basin. Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology (in Chinese), 39(3): 1–10
    Yang Fengli, Sun Zhuan, Zhou Zuyi, et al. 2012. The evolution of the South China Sea Basin in the Mesozoic–Cenozoic and its significance for oil and gas exploration: a review and overview. In: Gao Dengliang, ed. Tectonics and Sedimentation: Implications for Petroleum Systems. Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 397–418,
    Yuan Shengqiang, Lü Fuliang, Wu Shiguo, et al. 2009. Seismic stratigraphy of the Qiongdongnan deep sea channel system, northwest South China Sea. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 27(2): 250–259. doi: 10.1007/s00343-009-9177-0
    Zhang Gongcheng, Feng Congjun, Yao Xingzong, et al. 2021. Petroleum Geology in Deepwater Settings in a Passive Continental Margin of a Marginal Sea: A Case Study from the South China Sea. Acta Geologica Sinica (English edition), 95(1): 1–20. doi: 10.1111/1755-6724.14621
    Zhu Weilin, Huang Baojia, Mi Lijun, et al. 2009. Geochemistry, origin, and deep-water exploration potential of natural gases in the Pearl River Mouth and Qiongdongnan basins, South China Sea. AAPG Bulletin, 93(6): 741–761. doi: 10.1306/02170908099
    Zhu Weilin, Zhong Kai, Li Youchuan, et al. 2012. Characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation and exploration potential of the northern South China Sea deepwater basins. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(24): 3121–3129. doi: 10.1007/s11434-011-4940-y
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(18)  / Tables(2)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (446) PDF downloads(49) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return