YU Yi, LIU Hailong, LAN Jian. The influence of explicit tidal forcing in a climate ocean circulation model[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2016, 35(9): 42-50. doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0931-9
Citation: YU Yi, LIU Hailong, LAN Jian. The influence of explicit tidal forcing in a climate ocean circulation model[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2016, 35(9): 42-50. doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0931-9

The influence of explicit tidal forcing in a climate ocean circulation model

doi: 10.1007/s13131-016-0931-9
  • Received Date: 2015-10-07
  • Rev Recd Date: 2015-12-23
  • The eight main tidal constituents have been implemented in the global ocean general circulation model with approximate 1° horizontal resolution. Compared with the observation data, the patterns of the tidal amplitudes and phases had been simulated fairly well. The responses of mean circulation, temperature and salinity are further investigated in the global sense. When implementing the tidal forcing, wind-driven circulations are reduced, especially those in coastal regions. It is also found that the upper cell transport of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) reduces significantly, while its deep cell transport is slightly enhanced from 9×106 m3/s to 10×106 m3/s. The changes of circulations are all related to the increase of a bottom friction and a vertical viscosity due to the tidal forcing. The temperature and salinity of the model are also significantly affected by the tidal forcing through the enhanced bottom friction, mixing and the changes in mean circulation. The largest changes occur in the coastal regions, where the water is cooled and freshened. In the open ocean, the changes are divided into three layers:cooled and freshened on the surface and below 3 000 m, and warmed and salted in the middle in the open ocean. In the upper two layers, the changes are mainly caused by the enhanced mixing, as warm and salty water sinks and cold and fresh water rises; whereas in the deep layer, the enhancement of the deep overturning circulation accounts for the cold and fresh changes in the deep ocean.
  • loading
  • Arbic B K,Wallcraft A J,Metzger E J.2010.Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model.Ocean Modelling,32(3-4):175-187
    Bao Qing,Lin Pengfei,Zhou Tianjun,et al.2013.The flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model,spectral version:2.FGOALS-s2.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,30(3):561-576
    Bryan K.1969.A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean.Journal of Computational Physics,4(3):347-376
    Canuto V M,Howard A,Cheng Y,et al.2001.Ocean turbulence:Part I.One-point closure model-momentum and heat vertical diffusivities.Journal of Physical Oceanography,31(6):1413-1426
    Cox M D.1984.A primitive equation,3-dimensional model of the ocean.GFDL Ocean Group Technical Report,GFDL/Princeton University,USA.143-144
    Cunningham S A,Kanzow T,Rayner D,et al.2007.Temporal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N.Science,317(5840):935-938
    Egbert G D,Bennett A F,Foreman M G G.1994.TOPEX/POSEIDON tides estimated using a global inverse model.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans,99(C12):24821-24852
    Egbert G D,Ray R D.2003.Semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry.Geophysical Research Letters, 30(17):1907
    Egbert G D,Ray R D,Bills B G.2004.Numerical modeling of the global semidiurnal tide in the present day and in the last glacial maximum.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans,109(C3):C03003
    Gent P R,McWilliams J C.1990.Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models.Journal of Physical Oceanography,20(1):150-155
    Griffies S M,Biastoch A,B.ning C,et al.2009.Coordinated ocean-ice reference experiments (COREs).Ocean Modelling,26(1-2):1-46
    Griffies S M,Schmidt M,Herzfeld M.2010.Elements of mom4p1.GFDL Ocean Group Techical Report 6,GFDL/Princeton University, 444-445
    Hendershott M C.1972.The effects of solid earth deformation on global ocean tides.Geophysical Journal International,29(4):389-402
    Jayne S R.2009.The impact of abyssal mixing parameterizations in an ocean general circulation model.Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39(7):1756-1775
    Killworth P D,Webb D J,Stainforth D,et al.1991.The development of a free-surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model.Journal of Physical Oceanography,21(9):1333-1348
    Large W G,Yeager S G.2004.Diurnal to Decadal Global Forcing for Ocean and Sea-Ice Models:The Data Sets and Flux Climatologies.Boulder:National Center for Atmospheric Research,1-105
    Lee H C,Rosati A,Spelman M J.2006.Barotropic tidal mixing effects in a coupled climate model:oceanic conditions in the northern Atlantic.Ocean Modelling,11(3-4):464-477
    Li Lijuan,Lin Pengfei,Yu Yongqiang,et al.2013.The flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model,Grid-point Version 2:FGOALS-g2.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,30(3):543-560
    Lin Pengfei,Yu Yongqiang,Liu Hailong.2013a.Long-term stability and oceanic mean state simulated by the coupled model FGOALS-s2.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,30(1):175-192
    Lin Pengfei,Yu Yongqiang,Liu Hailong.2013b.Oceanic climatology in the coupled model FGOALS-g2:Improvements and biases.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,30(3):819-840
    Liu Hailong,Lin Pengfei,Yu Yongqiang,et al.2012.The baseline evaluation of LASG/IAP climate system ocean model (LICOM)version 2.Acta Meteorologica Sinica,26(3):318-329
    Locarnini R A,Mishonov A V,Antonov J I,et al.2010.World Ocean Atlas 2009,Vol.1.Temperature.In:Levitus S,ed.NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68.US Government Printing Office,184
    Mosetti F,Manca B.1972.Some methods of tidal analysis.International Hydrographic Review,49(2):107-120
    Müller M.2013.On the space-and time-dependence of barotropicto-baroclinic tidal energy conversion.Ocean Modelling,72:242-252
    Müller M,Cherniawsky J Y,Foreman M G G,et al.2012.Global M2 internal tide and its seasonal variability from high resolution ocean circulation and tide modeling.Geophysical Research Letters,39(19):L19607
    Müller M,Haak H,Jungclaus J H,et al.2010.The effect of ocean tides on a climate model simulation.Ocean Modelling,35(4):304-313
    Munk W,Wunsch C.1998.Abyssal recipes:Ⅱ.Energetics of tidal and wind mixing.Deep Sea Research:Part I,45(12):1977-2010
    Ponchaut F,Lyard F,Le Provost C.2001.An analysis of the tidal signal in the WOCE sea level dataset.Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology,18(1):77-91
    Sakamoto K,Tsujino H,Nakano H,et al.2013.A practical scheme to introduce explicit tidal forcing into an OGCM.Ocean Science, 9(6):1089-1108
    Schiller A.2004.Effects of explicit tidal forcing in an OGCM on the water-mass structure and circulation in the Indonesian throughflow region.Ocean Modelling,6(1):31-49
    Schiller A,Fiedler R.2007.Explicit tidal forcing in an ocean general circulation model.Geophysical Research Letters,34(3):L03611
    Shriver J F,Arbic B K,Richman J G,et al.2012.An evaluation of the barotropic and internal tides in a high-resolution global ocean circulation model.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 117(C10):C10024
    Shum C K,Woodworth P L,Andersen O B,et al.1997.Accuracy assessment of recent ocean tide models.Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans,102(C11):25173-25194
    St Laurent L C,Simmons H L,Jayne S R.2002.Estimating tidally driven mixing in the deep ocean.Geophysical Research Letters, 29(23):21-1-21-4
    Thomas M,Sündermann J,Maier-Reimer E.2001.Consideration of ocean tides in an OGCM and impacts on subseasonal to decadal polar motion excitation.Geophysical Research Letters, 28(12):2457-2460
    Yu Yongqiang,Zheng Weipeng,Wang Bin,et al.2011.Versions g1.0 and g1.1 of the LASG/IAP flexible global ocean-atmosphereland system model.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,28(1):99-117
    Yu Yongqiang,Zhi Hai,Wang Bin,et al.2008.Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,25(4):641-654
    Zhang Xuehong,Liang Xinzhong.1989.A numerical world ocean general circulation model.Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 6(1):44-61
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1138) PDF downloads(468) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint